Amazon, A-F, Support, plants documented with antifungal actions, herbs used for fungus, candida Amazon
A - F

120 capsules (650 mg each)

This product is no longer sold by Raintree Nutrition, Inc. See the main product page for more information why. Try doing a google search or see the rainforest products page to find other companies selling rainforest herbal supplements or rainforest plants if you want to make this rainforest formula yourself.

Amazon A-F is a synergistic formula of 8 rainforest botanicals traditionally used in South America for mold, fungi, and candida.* For more information on the individual ingredients in Amazon A-F, follow the links provided below to the plant database files in the Tropical Plant Database. More information can also be found in the new Antimicrobial Guide.

Ingredients: A herbal blend of jatoba, Brazilian peppertree, anamu, bellaco capsi, matico, piri-piri, pau d'arco, ubos, fedegoso, tamamuri, guaco, and graviola. To prepare this natural remedy yourself: use four parts jatoba, three parts Brazilian peppertree, two parts anamu and one part each bellaco capsi, matico, piri-piri, pau d'arco, ubos, fedegoso, tamamuri, guaco, and graviola. To make a small amount... "1 part" could be one tablespoon (you'd have 18 tablespoon of the blended herbal formula). For larger amounts, use "1 part" as one ounce, or one cup, or one pound. Combine all the herbs together well. The herbal mixture can then be stuffed into capsules or brewed into tea, stirred into juice or other liquid, or taken however you'd like.
Suggested Use: Tr take 1-2 grams by weight (or about 1/2 to 1 teaspoon by volume)
Contraindications: Not to be used during pregnancy or while breast-feeding.
Drug Interactions: None reported.





Third-Party Published Research*

This actual rainforest formula has not been the subject of any clinical research. A partial listing of the published research on each herbal ingredient in the formula is shown below. Please refer to the plant database files by clicking on the plant names below to see all available documentation and research.

Jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril)
Jatobá contains terpene and phenolic chemicals which are responsible for protecting the tree from fungi and mold in the rainforest. In fact, the jatobá tree is one of the few trees in the rainforest that sports a completely clean trunk bark, without any of the usual mold and fungus found on many other trees in this wet and humid environment. These antifungal terpenes and phenolics have been documented in several studies over the years and the antifungal activity of jatobá is attributed to these chemicals.*
Cavin, A., "Bioactive diterpenes from the fruits of Detarium microcarpum." J. Nat. Prod. 2006; 69(5): 768-73.
Abdel-Kader, M., et al. “Isolation and absolute configuration of ent-Halimane diterpenoids from Hymenaea courbaril from the Suriname rain forest.” J. Nat. Prod. 2002; 65(1): 11-5.
Yang, D., et al. “Use of caryophyllene oxide as an antifungal agent in an in vitro experimental model of onychomycosis.” Mycopathologia. 1999; 148(2): 79–82.
Hostettmann, K., et al. “Phytochemistry of plants used in traditional medicine.” Proceedings of the Phytochemical Society of Europe. Clarendon Press, Oxford. 1995.
Rahalison, L., et al. “Screening for antifungal activity of Panamanian plants.” Inst. J. Pharmacog. 1993; 31(1): 68–76.
Verpoorte, R., et al. “Medicinal plants of Surinam. IV. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1987; 21(3): 315–18.
Arrhenius, S.P., et al. “Inhibitory effects of Hymenaea and Copaifera leaf resins on the leaf fungus, Pestalotia subcuticulari.” Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 1983; 11(4): 361–66.
Giral, F., et al. “Ethnopharmacognostic observation on Panamanian medicinal plants. Part 1.” Q. J. Crude Drug Res. 1979; 167(3/4): 115–30.
Marsaioli, A. J., et al. “Diterpenes in the bark of Hymenaea courbaril.Phytochemistry. 1975; 14: 1882–83.
Pinheiro de Sousa, M., et al. “Molluscicidal activity of plants from Northeast Brazil.” Rev. Bras. Pesq. Med. Biol. 1974; 7(4): 389–94.

Brazilian Peppertree (Schinus molle)
In laboratory tests, essential oil, leaf, and bark extracts of Brazilian peppertree demonstrated potent antimicrobial properties.* It has demonstrated good-to-very strong in vitro antifungal actions against numerous fungi, as well as Candida in other published research.* One research group indicated that the antifungal action of the essential oil was more effective than the antifungal drug Multifungin®.* Research published in 2005 continues to document Brazilian peppertree's antifungal and anticandidal activities.*
Gomes, F., et al. "Antimicrobial lectin from Schinus terebinthifolius leaf." J Appl Microbiol. 2012 Nov 28.
Rocha, P., et al. "Synergistic Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oil of Aguaribay (Schinus molle L.)." Molecules. 2012 Oct 12;17(10):12023-36.
Montanari, R., et al. "Exposure to Anacardiaceae volatile oils and their constituents induces lipid peroxidation within food-borne bacteria cells." Molecules. 2012 Aug 14;17(8):9728-40
Moura-Costa, G., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of plants used as medicinals on an indigenous reserve in Rio das Cobras, Paraná, Brazil." J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Sep 28;143(2):631-8.
Leite, S., et al. "Randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of the vaginal use of metronidazole with a Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus) extract for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis." Braz J Med Biol Res. 2011 Mar;44(3):245-52
Johann, S., et al. "Antifungal activity of schinol and a new biphenyl compound isolated from Schinus terebinthifolius against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis." Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2010 Oct 12;9:30.
Pereira, E., et al. "In vitro antimicrobial activity of Brazilian medicinal plant extracts against pathogenic microorganisms of interest to dentistry." Planta Med. 2011 Mar;77(4):401-4.
Johann, S., et al. "Antifungal activity of extracts of some plants used in Brazilian traditional medicine against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis." Pharm Biol. 2010 Apr;48(4):388-96.
Johann, S., et al. "Antifungal activity of schinol and a new biphenyl compound isolated from Schinus terebinthifolius against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis" Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2010; 9: 30.
Salazar-Aranda, R., et al. "Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Plants from Northeast of Mexico" Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011; 2011: 536139.
Salazar-Aranda, R., et al. "Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Plants from Northeast of Mexico." Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2009 Sep 21.
El-Massry, K., et al. "Chemical compositions and antioxidant/antimicrobial activities of various samples prepared from Schinus terebinthifolius leaves cultivated in Egypt." J. Agric. Food Chem. 2009 Jun; 57(12): 5265-70.
Hayouni el, A., et al. "Tunisian Salvia officinalis L. and Schinus molle L. essential oils: their chemical compositions and their preservative effects against Salmonella inoculated in minced beef meat." Int. J. Food Microbiol. 2008 Jul; 125(3): 242-51.
Molina-Salinas, G., et al. "Evaluation of the flora of Northern Mexico for in vitro antimicrobial and antituberculosis activity." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Aug 23;
de Lima, M. R., et al. “Anti-bacterial activity of some Brazilian medicinal plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Apr; 105(1-2): 137-47.
Schmourlo, G., et al. “Screening of antifungal agents using ethanol precipitation and bioautography of medicinal and food plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Jan; 96(3): 563-8.
de Carvalho, M. C. “Evaluation of mutagenic activity in an extract of pepper tree stem bark (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi).” Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 2003; 42(3): 185-91.
de Melo, Jr., E. J., et al. “Medicinal plants in the healing of dry socket in rats: Microbiological and microscopic analysis.” Phytomedicine. 2002; 9(2): 109–16.
Quiroga, E. N., et al. “Screening antifungal activities of selected medicinal plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2001; 74(1): 89–96.
Camano, R. “Essential oil composition with bactericide activity.” United States patent 5,635,184; June 3, 1997.
Camano, R. “Method for treating bacterial infections.” United States patent 5,512,284; April 30, 1996.
Martinez, M. J., et al. “Screening of some Cuban medicinal plants for antimicrobial activity.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1996; 52(3): 171–74.
Cuella, M. J., et al. “Two fungal lanostane derivatives as phospholipase A2 inhibitors.” J. Nat. Prod. 1996; 59(10): 977–79.
Gundidza, M., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of essential oil from Schinus molle Linn.” Central African J. Med. 1993; 39(11): 231–34.
Dikshit, A. “Schinus molle: a new source of natural fungitoxicant.” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1986; 51(5): 1085–88.
El-Keltawi, N., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of some Egyptian aromatic plants.” Herba Pol. 1980; 26(4): 245–50.
Ross, S., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of some Egyptian aromatic plants.” Fitoterapia. 1980; 51: 201–5.
Simons, J., et al. “Succulent-type as sources of plant virus inhibitors.” Phytopathology. 1963; 53: 677–83.

Anamu (Petiveria alliacea)
Anamu's antifungal properties were documented by one research group in 1991, and again by a separate research group in 2001 and 2006.* Its antimicrobial activity was further demonstrated by researchers from Guatemala and Austria who, in separate studies in 1998, confirmed its activity in vitro and in vivo studies against several strains of protozoa, bacteria, and fungi.*
Kim, S., et al. “Antibacterial and antifungal activity of sulfur-containing compounds from Petiveria alliacea L.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Mar; 104(1-2): 188-92.
Kubec, R., et al. “The lachrymatory principle of Petiveria alliacea.” Phytochemistry. 2003 May; 63(1): 37-40.
Benevides, P. J., et al. “Antifungal polysulphides from Petiveria alliacea L.” Phytochemistry. 2001; 57(5): 743-7.
Caceres, A., et al. “Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections. I. Screening of activity to bacteria, fungi and American trypanosomes of 13 native plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1998 Oct; 62(3): 195-202.
Berger, I., et al. “Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections: II. Activity of extracts and fractions of five Guatemalan plants against Trypanosoma cruzi.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1998 Sep; 62(2): 107-15.
Hoyos, L., et al. “Evaluation of the genotoxic effects of a folk medicine, Petiveria alliaceae (Anamu).” Mutat. Res. 1992; 280(1): 29-34.
Caceres, A., et al. “Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. I. Screening for antimycotic activity of 44 plant extracts.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1991; 31(3): 263-76.
Misas, C.A.J., et al. “The biological assessment of Cuban plants. III.” Rev. Cub. Med. Trop. 1979; 31(1): 21–27.
Von Szczepanski, C., et al. “Isolation, structure elucidation and synthesis of an antimicrobial substance from Petiveria alliacea.” Arzneim-Forsch 1972; 22: 1975–.
Feng, P., et al. “Further pharmacological screening of some West Indian medicinal plants.” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1964; 16: 115.

Bellaco-Caspi (Himatanthus sucuuba)
Bellaco caspi evidenced a greater antifungal effect than the antifungal drug, nistatin, in research conducted in Brazil in 1998.*
Kuigoua, G., et al. "Minor Secondary Metabolic Products from the Stem Bark of Plumeria rubra Linn. Displaying Antimicrobial Activities. Planta Med. 2009 Nov 20.
Moreira, D., et al. "Actividades antimicrobiologicas dos stratos e fracoes obtido atraves de solventes organicos da casca da Himatanthus sucuuba do vale do Acre." Anais Do XV Seminario De Iniciacao Cientifica PIBIQ-CNPQ, 2006: Universidade Federal Do Acre, Rio Branco-Acre, Brazil.
Souza, W., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of alkaloidal fraction from barks of Himatanthus lancifolius." Fitoterapia. 2004 Dec; 75(7-8): 750-3.
Little, J., et al. "Plumericin; an antimicrobial agent from Plumeria multiflora." Arch. Biochem. 1951; 30(2): 445-52.
Persinos-Perdue, G., et al. " South American plants. III. Isolation of fulvoplumierin from Himatanthus sucuuba (Apocynaceae). J. Pharm. Sci. 1978; 67: 1322.
Wood, C. A., et al. "A bioactive spirolactone iridoid and triterpenoids from Himatanthus sucuuba." Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2001; 49(11): 1477-1478.
De Silva, J. R., et al. "Triterpenic esters from Himatanthus sucuuba (Spruce) Woodson." Quimica Nova 1998; 21(6): 702-704.
Abdel-Kader, M., et al. "Bioactive iridoids and a new lignan from Allamanda cathartica and Himatanthus fallax from the Suriname rainforest." J. Nat. Prod. 1997; 60(12): 1294-7.
Hamburger, M., et al. "Traditional medicinal plants of Thailand. XVII. Biologically active constituents of Plumeria rubra." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1991 Jul; 33(3): 289-92.
Kardono, L., et al. "Cytotoxic constituents of the bark of Plumeria rubra collected in Indonesia." J. Nat. Prod. 1990 Nov-Dec; 53(6):1447-55.
Jovel, E., et al. "An ethnobotanical study of the traditional medicine of the Mestizo people of Suni Mirano, Loreto, Peru." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1996; (53): 149-156.
Bolzani, V., et al. "Search for antifungal and anticancer compounds from native plant species of cerrado and Atlantic Forest." An. Acad. Bras. Cienc. 1999; 71(2): 181-7.

Matico (Piper aduncum)
In various laboratory studies over the years, matico has demonstrated antimicrobial actions against various fungi, yeast, and bacteria.*
Lago, J. H., et al. “Benzoic acid derivatives from Piper species and their fungitoxic activity against Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum.J. Nat. Prod. 2004; 67(11):1783-8.
Navickiene, H., et al. “Composition and antifungal activity of essential oils from Piper aduncum, Piper arboreum and Piper tuberculatum.” Quim. Nova. 2006; 20( 3): 467-470.
Braga, F. G., et al. "Antileishmanial and antifungal activity of plants used in traditional medicine in Brazil." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 May; 111(2): 396-402.
Lemos, T. L. G., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Brazilian plants.” Phytother. Res. 1990; 4(2): 82-84.
Kloucek, P., et al. “Antibacterial screening of some Peruvian medicinal plants used in Calleria district.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Jun; 99(2): 309-12.
Lentz, D. L., et al. “Antimicrobial properties of Honduran medicinal plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol, 1998; 63(3): 253-263.
Cde Almeida, R. R., et al. "Chemical variation in Piper aduncum and biological properties of its dillapiole-rich essential oil." Chem. Biodivers. 2009; 6(9):1427-34.
Orjala, J., et al. “Two chromenes and a prenylated benzoic acid derivative from Piper aduncum.” Phytochemistry. 1993; 34(3): 813-818.
Lemos, T. L. G., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Brazilian plants.” Phytother. Res. 1990; 4(2): 82-84.
Lentz, D. L., et al. “Antimicrobial properties of Honduran medicinal plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol, 1998; 63(3): 253-263.
Trillini, B., et al. “Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Piper angustifolium.” Planta Med. 1996; 62(4): 372-373.

Piri-Piri (Cyperus articulatus)
Piri-piri has been documented with anti-yeast actions against Candida.*
Duarte, M., et al. "Anti-Candida activity of Brazilian medicinal plants." J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Feb 28;97(2):305-11.
Desmarchelier, C., et al. “Studies on the cytotoxicity, antimicrobial and DNA-binding activities of plants used by the Ese'ejas.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1996; 50(2): 91-96.
Mongelli, E., et al. “Antimicrobial activity and interaction with DNA of medicinal plants from the Peruvian Amazon region.” Rev. Argent. Microbiol. 1995 Oct-Dec; 27(4): 199-203.
Duarte, M. C., et al. “Anti-candida activity of Brazilian medicinal plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005; 97(2): 305-11.

Pau d'arco (Tabebuia impetiginosa)
Antimicrobial properties of many of pau d'arco's active phytochemicals were demonstrated in several laboratory studies, in which they exhibited strong in vitro activity against bacteria, fungi, and yeast (including Candida, Aspergillus, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Helicobacter pylori).* A water extract of pau d'arco was reported in other in vitro research to have strong activity against 11 fungus and yeast strains.*
Hofling, J., et al. "Antimicrobial potential of some plant extracts against Candida species." Braz J Biol. 2010 Nov;70(4):1065-8.
Melo e Silva, F., et al. "Evaluation of the antifungal potential of Brazilian Cerrado medicinal plants." Mycoses. 2009 Nov;52(6):511-7.
Pereira, E. M., et al. "Tabebuia avellanedae naphthoquinones: activity against methicillin-resistant staphylococcal strains, cytotoxic activity and in vivo dermal irritability analysis." Ann. Clin. Microbiol. Antimicrob. 2006 Mar; 5: 5.
Park, B. S., et al. "Antibacterial activity of Tabebuia impetiginosa Martius ex DC (Taheebo) against Helicobacter pylori." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Apr; 105(1-2): 255-62.
Park, B. S., et al. “Selective growth-inhibiting effects of compounds identified in Tabebuia impetiginosa inner bark on human intestinal bacteria.” J. Agric. Food Chem. 2005 Feb; 23;53(4): 1152-7.
Park, B. S., et al. “Antibacterial activity of Tabebuia impetiginosa Martius ex DC (Taheebo) against Helicobacter pylori.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Dec;
Machado, T. B., et al. “In vitro activity of Brazilian medicinal plants, naturally occurring naphthoquinones and their analogues, against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.” Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents. 2003; 21(3): 279-84.
Portillo, A., et al. “Antifungal activity of Paraguayan plants used in traditional medicine.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2001; 76(1): 93–8.
Nagata, K., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of novel furanonaphthoquinone analogs.” Antimicrobial Agents Chemother. 1998; 42(3): 700–2.
Binutu, O. A., et al. “Antimicrobial potentials of some plant species of the Bignoniaceae family.” Afr. J. Med. Sci. 1994; 23(3): 269–73.
Giuraud, P., et al. “Comparison of antibacterial and antifungal activities of lapachol and b-lapachone.” Planta Med. 1994; 60: 373–74.
Li, C. J., et al. “Three inhibitors of type 1 human immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat-directed gene expression and virus replication.” Proc. Nat’l. Acad. Sci. USA 1993; 90(5): 1839–42.
Anesini, C., et al. “Screening of plants used in Argentine folk medicine for antimicrobial activity.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1993; 39(2): 119–28.
Lagrota, M., et al. “Antiviral activity of lapachol.” Rev. Microbiol. 1983; 14: 21–6.
Gershon, H., et al. “Fungitoxicity of 1,4-naphthoquinonoes to Candida albicans and Trichophyton menta grophytes.” Can. J. Microbiol. 1975; 21: 1317–21.
Linhares, M. S., et al. “Estudo sobre of efeito de substancias antibioticas obitdas de Streptomyces e vegatais superiores sobre o herpesvirus hominis.” Revista Instituto Antibioticos, Recife 1975; 15: 25–32.

Ubos (Spondias mombin)
Published research testing ubos ubos bark reports that it has strong antifungal and anti-candidal actions.*
da Silva, A., et al. "Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of two Spondias species from Northeastern Brazil." Pharm Biol. 2012 Jun;50(6):740-6.
Amadi, E., et al. "Studies on the antimicrobial effects of Spondias mombin and Baphia nittida on dental caries organism." Pak J Biol Sci. 2007 Feb 1;10(3):393-7.
Calderon, A., et al. "Forest plot as a tool to demonstrate the pharmaceutical potential of plants in a tropical forest of Panama." Econ. Bot. 2000; 54(3): 278-294.
Kramer, A., et al. "Ethnobotany and biological activity of plants utilized during pregnancy and childbirth in the Peruvian Amazon." Emanations from the Rainforest and the Carribean Vol. 4 Sept. 2002, Cornell University.
Flood, K., et al. "Phytochemical analysis of Cedrela odorata and Spondias mombin, two dietary sources of Callithrix pygmea on the Yarapa river in the Amazon basin of Peru." Emanations from the Rainforest and the Carribean Vol. 4 Sept. 2002, Cornell University.
Ajao, A., et al. "Antibacterial effect of aqueous and alcohol extracts of Spondias mombin, and Alchornea cordifolia - two local antimicrobial remedies." Int. J. Crude Drug Res. 1985; 23(2): 67-72.
Abo, K., et al. "Antimicrobial potential of Spondias mombin, Croton zambesicus and Zygotritonia crocea." Phytother. Res. 1999; 13(6): 494-497.
Corthout, J., et al. "Antivirally active substances from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae)." Abstr. Internat. Res. Cong. Nat. Prod. Coll Pharm. Univ. July 7-12 1985 Abstr. - 53. N. Carolina University, Chapel Hill, NC
Ramirez, V., et al., "Vegetales empleados en medicina tradicional Norperuana." Banco Agrario Del Peru & Nacl Univ Trujillo, Trujillo, Peru, June, 1988 Page 54.
Coates, N., et al. "SB-202742, A novel beta-lactamase inhibitor isolated from Spondias mombin." J. Nat. Prod. 1994; 57(5): 654-657.
Herforth, A., "Anti-fungal plants of the Peruvian Amazon: A survey of ethnomedical uses and biological activity." Emanations from the Rainforest and the Carribean. Vol. 4 Sept. 2002, Cornell University.

Fedegoso (Cassia occidentalis)
Fedegoso has been traditionally used for many types of bacterial, fungal, and parasitic infections for many years in the tropical countries where it grows.* In vitro laboratory research on fedegoso leaves published over the years has reported active antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, insecticidal, and antimalarial properties.*
Bhagat, M., et al. "Evaluation of Cassia occidentalis for in vitro cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines and antibacterial activity." Indian J Pharmacol. 2010 Aug;42(4):234-7.
Li, S., et al. "Cycloartane triterpenoids from Cassia occidentalis." Planta Med. 2012 May;78(8):821-7.
Evans CE, et al. “Efficacy of some nupe medicinal plants against Salmonella typhi: an in vitro study.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Apr; 80(1): 21-4.
Samy, R. P., et al. “Antibacterial activity of some folklore medicinal plants used by tribals in Western Ghats of India.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2000; 69(1): 63–71.
Anesini, C., et al. “Screening of plants used in Argentine folk medicine for antimicrobial activity.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1993; 39(2): 119–28.
Caceres, A., et al. “Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. 1. Screening for antimycotic activity of 44 plant extracts.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1991; 31(3): 263–76.
Hussain, H., et al. “Plants in Kano ethomedicine: screening for antimicrobial activity and alkaloids.” Int. J. Pharmacog. 1991; 29(1): 51–6.
Gaind, K. N., et al. “Antibiotic activity of Cassia occidentalis.” Indian J. Pharmacy 1966; 28(9): 248–50.

Tamamuri (Brosimum acutifolium)
University researchers in the United States reported tamamuri's antifungal and anticandidal actions in two publications.*
Herforth, A., et al. “Amazonian Women’s Medicine: Treatments for Mycoses.” Poster: Society for Economic Botany 2002 vol 56(4).
Herforth, A., et al. “ Antifungal plants of the Peruvian Amazon: a survey of ethnomedical uses and biological activity.” Cornel University Publication 2002

Guaco (Mikania guaco)
In research published in 2002 and 2005, guaco was reported with in vitro antibacterial and antiyeast actions against Candida.* Guaco contains a plant chemical called kaurenoic acid which, in other in vitro research, has demonstrated antifungal and antibacterial activity.*
Duarte, M. C., et al. "Anti-Candida activity of Brazilian medicinal plants." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005; 97(2): 305.
Yatsuda, R., et al. “Effects of Mikania genus plants on growth and cell adherence of mutans streptococci.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005; 97(2): 183-9.
Holetz, F. B., "Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases." Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 2002 Oct; 97(7):1027-31.
Ushimaru, R., et al. "In vitro antibacterial activity of medicinal plant extracts against Escherichia coli strains from human clinical specimens and interactions with antimicrobial drugs." Nat Prod Res. 2012;26(16):1553-7.
de Andrade, B., et al. "Evaluation of ent-kaurenoic acid derivatives for their anticariogenic activity." Nat Prod Commun. 2011 Jun;6(6):777-80.
Laurella, L., et al. "In vitro evaluation of antiprotozoal and antiviral activities of extracts from Argentinean Mikania species." Scientific World Journal. 2012;2012:121253.
Benatti, B., et al. "Effects of a Mikania laevigata extract on bone resorption and RANKL expression during experimental periodontitis in rats." J Appl Oral Sci. 2012 May-Jun;20(3):340-6.
Facy, P., et al. "The antibacterial activities of mikanolide and its derivatives." West Indian Med J. 2010
Betoni, J. E., et al. "Synergism between plant extract and antimicrobial drugs used on Staphylococcus aureus diseases." Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 2006 Jun; 101(4): 387-90.
Yatsuda, R., et al. “Effects of Mikania genus plants on growth and cell adherence of Mutans streptococci.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005; 97(2): 183-9.
Rungeler, P., et al. “Germacranolides from Mikania guaco." Phytochemistry 2001; 56(5): 475-89.
Muelas-Serrano, S., “In vitro screening of American plant extracts on Trypanosoma cruzi and Trichomonas vaginalis.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2000; 71(1-2): 101-7.Jun;59(3):249-52.

Graviola (Annona muricata)
Graviola (and various chemicals found in graviola) have been documented to inhibit ATP energy to mutated cells with a ATP-driven intercellular pumps*. These small pumps can be found in candida, cancer, fungi, and bacteria cells which make these pathogens resistant and even immune to chemical agents meant to kill them.*
Keinan, E., et al. "Antibody-catalyzed organic and organometallic transformations and chemical libraries of Annonaceous acetogenins." The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology Scientific Report 1997-1998.
Nicolas, H., et al. "Structure-activity relationships of diverse Annonaceous acetogenins against multidrug resistant human mammary adenocarcinoma (MCF-7/Adr) cells." J. Med. Chem. 1997; 40(13): 2102-6.
Gonzalez-Coloma, A., et al. “Selective action of acetogenin mitochondrial complex I inhibitors.” Z. Naturforsch. 2002; 57(11-12): 1028-34.



*The statements contained herein have not been evaluated
by the Food and Drug Administration. The information contained herein is intended and provided for education, research, entertainment and information purposes only. This information is not intended to be used to diagnose, prescribe or replace proper medical care. The plants and/or formulas described herein are not intended to treat, cure, diagnose, mitigate or prevent any disease and no medical claims are made.
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