Amazon A-F is a synergistic formula of 8 rainforest botanicals traditionally used in South America for mold, fungi, and candida.* For more information on the individual ingredients in Amazon A-F, follow the links provided below to the plant database files in the Tropical Plant Database. More information can also be found in the new Antimicrobial Guide and Leslie Taylor's blog on this formula.
Ingredients: A herbal blend of jatoba, Brazilian peppertree, anamu, bellaco capsi, matico, piri-piri, pau d'arco, ubos, fedegoso, tamamuri, guaco, and graviola. To prepare this natural remedy yourself: use four parts jatoba, three parts Brazilian peppertree, two parts anamu and one part each bellaco capsi, matico, piri-piri, pau d'arco, ubos, fedegoso, tamamuri, guaco, and graviola. To make a small amount... "1 part" could be one tablespoon (you'd have 18 tablespoon of the blended herbal formula). For larger amounts, use "1 part" as one ounce, or one cup, or one pound. Combine all the herbs together well. The herbal mixture can then be stuffed into capsules or brewed into tea, stirred into juice or other liquid, or taken however you'd like.
Suggested Use: Take 1-2 grams by weight (or about 1/2 to 1 teaspoon by volume) twice daily.
Contraindications: Not to be used during pregnancy or while breast-feeding.
Drug Interactions: None reported.
Raintree Nutrition, Leslie Taylor, and this website no longer sell any herbal supplements. This same formula is available from other companies who chose to manufacture it under their labels after Leslie Taylor published all of her previously proprietary formulas on this website. See the product search links in the left margin to find these available products or make the formula yourself using the information provided above. There is also a list of manufacturers and retailers selling rainforest herbal supplements and plants shown on the main Rainforest Products Page.
Jatobá (Hymenaea courbaril)
Jatobá contains terpene and phenolic chemicals which are responsible for protecting the
tree from fungi in the rainforest. In fact, the jatobá tree is one of the few trees in the rainforest
that sports a completely clean trunk bark, without any of the usual mold and fungus found on
many other trees in this wet and humid environment. These antifungal terpenes and phenolics
have been documented in several studies over the years and the antifungal activity of jatobá is
attributed to these chemicals.
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da Costa, M., et al. "Antifungal and cytotoxicity activities of the fresh xylem sap of Hymenaea courbaril L. and its major constituent fisetin." BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 2014 Jul; 14: 245.
Cavin, A., "Bioactive diterpenes from the fruits of Detarium microcarpum." J. Nat. Prod. 2006; 69(5): 768-73.
Abdel-Kader, M., et al. "Isolation and absolute configuration of ent-Halimane diterpenoids from Hymenaea courbaril from the Suriname rain forest." J. Nat. Prod. 2002; 65(1): 11-5.
Yang, D., et al. "Use of caryophyllene oxide as an antifungal agent in an in vitro experimental model of onychomycosis." Mycopathologia. 1999; 148(2): 79-82.
Hostettmann, K., et al. "Phytochemistry of plants used in traditional medicine." Proceedings of the Phytochemical Society of Europe. Clarendon Press, Oxford. 1995.
Rahalison, L., et al. "Screening for antifungal activity of Panamanian plants." Inst. J. Pharmacog. 1993; 31(1): 68-76.
Verpoorte, R., et al. "Medicinal plants of Surinam. IV. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1987; 21(3): 315-18.
Arrhenius, S.P., et al. "Inhibitory effects of Hymenaea and Copaifera leaf resins on the leaf fungus, Pestalotia subcuticulari." Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 1983; 11(4): 361-66.
Giral, F., et al. "Ethnopharmacognostic observation on Panamanian medicinal plants. Part 1." Q. J. Crude Drug Res. 1979; 167(3/4): 115-30.
Marsaioli, A. J., et al. "Diterpenes in the bark of Hymenaea courbaril." Phytochemistry. 1975; 14: 1882-83.
Brazilian Peppertree (Schinus molle)
In laboratory tests, essential oil, leaf, and bark extracts of Brazilian peppertree demonstrated potent antimicrobial properties.* It has demonstrated good-to-very strong in vitro antifungal actions against numerous fungi, as well as Candida in other published research.* One research group indicated that the antifungal action of the essential oil was more effective than the antifungal drug Multifungin®.* Research published thereafter continues to document Brazilian peppertree's antifungal and anticandidal activities.*
do Prado, A., et al. "Schinus molle essential oil as a potential source of bioactive compounds: antifungal and antibacterial properties." J. Appl. Microbiol. 2019 Feb; 126(2): 516-522.
Arpini, C., et al. "Purpuriocillium lilacinum infection in captive loggerhead sea turtle hatchlings. Med. Mycol. Case Rep. 2018 Oct 25; 23:8-11.
Torres, K., et al. "Activity of the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi on strains of the Candida genus." Rev. Bras. Ginecol. Obstet. 2016 Dec; 38(12): 593-599.
Biasi-Garbin, R., et al. "Antifungal potential of plant species from Brazilian caatinga against dermatophytes. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo. 2016; 58:18.
Elshafie, H., et al. "An in vitro attempt for controlling severe phytopathogens and human pathogens using essential oils from mediterranean plants of genus Schinus." J. Med. Food. 2016 Mar; 19(3): 266-73.
Tonial, F., et al. "Influence of culturing conditions on bioprospecting and the antimicrobial potential of endophytic fungi from Schinus terebinthifolius." Curr. Microbiol. 2016 Feb; 72(2): 173-183.
D'Sousa' Costa, C., et al. "Phytochemical screening, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of extracts prepared from different tissues of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi that occurs in the coast of Bahia, Brazil." Pharmacogn Mag. 2015 Jul-Sep; 11(43): 607-14.
Cole, E., et al. "Chemical composition of essential oil from ripe fruit of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi and evaluation of its activity against wild strains of hospital origin." Braz. J. Microbiol. 2014 Oct; 45(3): 821-8.
Melo, M., et al. "Alcohol extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) as a local antimicrobial agent in severe autogenously fecal peritonitis in rats." Acta Cir. Bras. 2014; 29 Suppl 1: 52-6.
Vieira, D., et al. "Plant species used in dental diseases: ethnopharmacology aspects and antimicrobial activity evaluation." J Ethnopharmacol. 2014 Sep; 155(3): 1441-9.
Barbieri, D., et al. "Antiadherent activity of Schinus terebinthifolius and Croton urucurana extracts on in vitro biofilm formation of Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans." Arch. Oral Biol. 2014 Sep; 59(9): 887-96.
Martins, Mdo R., et al. "Antioxidant, antimicrobial and toxicological properties of Schinus molle L. essential oils." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2014; 151(1): 485-92.
Freires Ide, A., et al. "A randomized clinical trial of Schinus terebinthifolius mouthwash to treat biofilm-induced gingivitis." Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2013; 2013: 873907.
Guerra-Boone L., et al. "Chemical compositions and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils from Magnolia grandiflora, Chrysactinia mexicana, and Schinus molle found in northeast Mexico." Nat. Prod. Commun. 2013 Jan; 8(1): 135-8.
Alves L., et al. "Effect of Schinus terebinthifolius on Candida albicans growth kinetics, cell wall formation and micromorphology." Acta Odontol. Scand. 2013 May-Jul; 71(3-4): 965-71.
Gomes, F., et al. "Antimicrobial lectin from Schinus terebinthifolius leaf." J. Appl. Microbiol. 2013 Mar; 114(3): 672-9. Moura-Costa, G., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of plants used as medicinals on an indigenous reserve in Rio das Cobras, Paraná, Brazil." J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Sep; 143(2): 631-8.
Leite, S., et al. "Randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of the vaginal use of metronidazole with a Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus) extract for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis." Braz. J. Med. Biol Res. 2011 Mar; 44(3): 245-52
Salazar-Aranda, R., et al. "Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Plants from Northeast of Mexico" Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011; 2011: 536139.
Pereira, E., et al. "In vitro antimicrobial activity of Brazilian medicinal plant extracts against pathogenic microorganisms of interest to dentistry." Planta Med. 2011 Mar; 77(4): 401-4.
Johann, S., et al. "Antifungal activity of extracts of some plants used in Brazilian traditional medicine against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis." Pharm. Biol. 2010 Apr; 48(4): 388-96.
Johann, S., et al. "Antifungal activity of schinol and a new biphenyl compound isolated from Schinus terebinthifolius against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis." Ann. Clin. Microbiol. Antimicrob. 2010 Oct; 9:30.
Johann, S., et al. "Antifungal activity of schinol and a new biphenyl compound isolated from Schinus terebinthifolius against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis." Ann. Clin. Microbiol. Antimicrob. 2010; 9: 30.
El-Massry, K., et al. "Chemical compositions and antioxidant/antimicrobial activities of various samples prepared from Schinus terebinthifolius leaves cultivated in Egypt." J. Agric. Food Chem. 2009 Jun; 57(12): 5265-70.
Schmourlo, G., et al. "Screening of antifungal agents using ethanol precipitation and bioautography of medicinal and food plants." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Jan; 96(3): 563-8.
Quiroga, E. N., et al. "Screening antifungal activities of selected medicinal plants." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2001; 74(1): 89-96.
Martinez, M. J., et al. "Screening of some Cuban medicinal plants for antimicrobial activity." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1996; 52(3): 171-74.
Cuella, M. J., et al. "Two fungal lanostane derivatives as phospholipase A2 inhibitors." J. Nat. Prod. 1996; 59(10): 977-79.
Gundidza, M., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of essential oil from Schinus molle Linn." Central African J. Med. 1993; 39(11): 231-34.
Dikshit, A. "Schinus molle: a new source of natural fungitoxicant." Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1986; 51(5): 1085-88.
El-Keltawi, N., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of some Egyptian aromatic plants." Herba Pol. 1980; 26(4): 245-50.
Ross, S., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of some Egyptian aromatic plants." Fitoterapia. 1980; 51: 201-5.
Anamu (Petiveria alliacea)
Anamu's antifungal properties were documented by one research group in 1991, and again by a separate research group in 2001 and 2006.* Its antimicrobial activity was further demonstrated by researchers from Guatemala and Austria who, in separate studies in 1998, confirmed its activity in vitro and in vivo studies against several strains of protozoa, bacteria, and fungi.*
Flota-Burgos, G., et al. "Anthelminthic activity of methanol extracts of Diospyros anisandra and Petiveria alliacea on Cyathostomin (Nematoda: Cyathostominae) larval development and egg hatching" Vet Parasitol. 2017 Dec; 248: 74-79.
Zavala Ocampo, L., et al. "Antiamoebic activity of Petiveria alliacea leaves and their main component, isoarborinol." J. Micriol. Biotechnol. 2017 Aug; 27(8): 1401-1408.
Arceo-Medina, G., et al. "Synergistic action of fatty acids, sulphides and stilbene against acaricide-resistant Rhipicephalus microplus ticks. Vet. Parasitol. 2016 Sep; 228: 121-125.
Kasper, S., et al. "Chemical inhibition of kynureninase reduces Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing and virulence factor expression. ACS Chem. Biol. 2016 Apr; 11(4): 1106-17.
Lowe, H., et al. "Inhibition of the Human Hepatitis C virus by dibenzyl trisulfide from Petiveria alliacea L (Guinea Hen Weed)." Br. Microbio. Res. J. 2016; 12(1): 1-6.
Lowe, H., et al. "Petiveria alliacea L (guinea hen weed) and its major metabolite dibenzyl trisulfide demonstrate HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity." Euro. J. Med. Plants 2015; 5(1): 88-94.
Kerdudo, A., et al. "Essential oil composition and biological activities of Petiveria alliacea L. from Martinique." J. Essential Oil Res. 2015 Feb; 27: 186-196.
Illnait-Zaragozí1, M., et al. "In vitro antifungal activity of crude hydro-alcoholic extract of Petiveria alliacea L on clinical Candida isolates." Clin. Microbial. 2014 Jul; 3(4)
Kasper, S., et al. "S-aryl-L-cysteine sulphoxides and related organosulphur compounds alter oral biofilm development and AI-2-based cell-cell communication." J. Appl. Microbiol. 2014 Nov; 117(5): 1472-86.
Romero, O. “[Contribution to the standardization of the process of obtaining an extract of leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. (Anamú) on a laboratory scale].” (Thesis) 2014. Universidad Nacional de Colombia Facultadde Ciencias, Departamento de Farmacia. Bogotá, Colombia.
Garrido, B., et al. “[Pharmacognostic characters for quality control of Petiveria alliacea, Lippia graveolens and Tagetes lucida].” Dominguezia. 2013; 29(2): 25-39.
Ochoa, A., et al. "Physical, physical-chemical and chemical characterization of total extracts of fresh leaves from Petiveria alliacea L. with antimicrobial action." Rev. Mex. Cienc. Farm. 2013; 44(1): 52-59.
Pacheco, A., et al. "In vitro antimicrobial activity of total extracts of the leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. (Anamu)." Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. 2013 Apr/Jun; 49(2): 241-250.
Neves, A., et al. "Acaricidal activity and essential oil composition of Petiveria alliacea L. from Pernambuco (Northeast Brazil)." J. Essential Oil Res. 2011; 1(1).
Mulyani, Y., et al. “Petiveria alliacea: New alternative for the treatment of sensitive and multi-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.” J. Pharmacog. Phytother. 2012 Dec; 4(7): 91-95.
Illnait, M., et al. “[Antifungal effect of an extract of Petiveria alliacea L].” Rev. CENIC Sci. Bio.. 2010; 41 (1): 79-82.
Guedes, R., et al. “[Antimicrobial activity of extracts of Petiveria alliacea (guinea) against standard strains of fungi].” Lat. Am. J. Pharm. 2009; 28(4): 520-4.
Guedes, R., et al. "[Antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts of Petiveria alliacea L.]." Lat. Am. J. Pharm. 2009; 28(4): 520-4.
Illnait, M., et al. “Evaluation of the antimycotic effect of Petiveria alliacea L.” Poster Presentations. Mycoses 2009; 52 (S1): 29-123.
Marín, J., et al. “[Technological study of the extract of the leaves of the Petiveria alliacea L].” Rev. CENIC Sci. Chem. 2008; 39 (3): 141-145.
Ochoa, A., et al. “[Study of physical and qualitative chemical stability of the optimized extract of the leaves of Petiveria alliaceaca L.].” Rev. Cuba. Chem. 2008; 20 (1): 3-8.
Mujawimana, R., et al. "[Antimicrobial evaluation of total extracts of the leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. (anamú)]." [Thesis] Universidad de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba, 2008: 1-45.
Ferrer, J., et al. “Main ethnomedical references of anamú (Petiveria alliacea Linn) and active ingredients found in the plant.” Rev. Sci. Bio. 2007; 38(1)
Kim, S., et al. "Antibacterial and antifungal activity of sulfur-containing compounds from Petiveria alliacea L." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Mar; 104(1-2): 188-92.
Mushah, R., et al. "Antibacterial and antifungal activity of sulfur-containing compounds from Petiveria alliacea L." Phosp. Sulfur. Sil. 2005; 180: 1455-1456.
Kubec, R., et al. "The lachrymatory principle of Petiveria alliacea." Phytochemistry. 2003 May; 63(1): 37-40.
Martínez Pilar, M., et al. “[Pharmacognostic, phytochemical and microbiological study of Petiveria alliaceae Lin 1998].” Gaceta Médica Espirituana 2003; 5 (1).
Ruffa, M., et al. "Antiviral activity of Petiveria alliacea against the bovine diarrhea virus." Chemotherapy. 2002; 48(3): 144-47.
Pérez, D. “[Medicinal ethnobotany and biocides for malaria in the Ucayali Region]." FoliaAmazónica. 2002; 13 (1-2): 87-108.
Benevides, P., et al. "Antifungal polysulphides from Petiveria alliacea L." Phytochemistry. 2001; 57(5): 743-7.
Echeverria, A., et al. “[Effect of an extract of Petiveria alliacea Linn on the growth of Giardia lamblia in vitro].” Rev. Cuba Med. Mil. 2001; 303: 161-5.
Caceres, A., et al. "Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections. I. Screening of activity to bacteria, fungi and American trypanosomes of 13 native plants." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1998 Oct; 62(3): 195-202.
Berger, I., et al. "Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections: II. Activity of extracts and fractions of five Guatemalan plants against Trypanosoma cruzi." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1998 Sep; 62(2): 107-15.
Melis R., et al. "[Pharmacological and toxicological characterization of Petiveria alliacea (anamú) and evaluation of antimicrobial activity]." Rev. Cuba. Farm. 1994; 28 (1): 55-9.
Hoyos, L., et al. "Evaluation of the genotoxic effects of a folk medicine, Petiveria alliaceae (Anamu)." Mutat. Res. 1992; 280(1): 29-34.
Caceres, A., et al. "Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. I. Screening for antimycotic activity of 44 plant extracts." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1991; 31(3): 263-76.
Misas, C., et al. "The biological assessment of Cuban plants. III." Rev. Cub. Med. Trop. 1979; 31(1): 21-27.
Von Szczepanski, C., et al. "Isolation, structure elucidation and synthesis of an antimicrobial substance from Petiveria alliacea." Arzneim-Forsch. 1972; 22: 1975-.
Feng, P., et al. "Further pharmacological screening of some West Indian medicinal plants." J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1964; 16: 115.
Bellaco-Caspi (Himatanthus sucuuba)
Bellaco caspi evidenced a greater antifungal effect than the antifungal drug, nistatin, in research conducted in Brazil in 1998.* Other studies published since that time continues to report bellaco caspi's actions against fungi and candida. Sereval natural plant chemicals found in the bark are attributed with this antifungal action and are named plumericin, isoplumericin, plumieride, and fulvoplumierin.
Figueiredo, C., et al. "Himatanthus drasticus leaves: chemical characterization and evaluation of their antimicrobial, antibiofilm, antiproliferative activities." Molecules. 2017 May 31; 22(6).
Saengsai, J., et al. "Antibacterial and antiproliferative activities of plumericin, an iridoid isolated from Momordica charantia vine." Evid. Based Complement. Alternat Med. 2015; 2015: 823178.
Singh, D., et al. "Antifungal activity of plumericin and isoplumericin. Nat. Prod. Commun. 2011 Nov; 6(11): 1567-8.
Kuigoua, G., et al. "Minor secondary metabolic products from the stem bark of Plumeria rubra Linn. displaying antimicrobial activities." Planta Med. 2010 Apr; 76(6): 620-5.
Moreira, D., et al. "Actividades antimicrobiologicas dos stratos e fracoes obtido atraves de solventes organicos da casca da Himatanthus sucuuba do vale do Acre." Anais Do XV Seminario De Iniciacao Cientifica PIBIQ-CNPQ, 2006: Universidade Federal Do Acre, Rio Branco-Acre, Brazil.
Souza, W., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of alkaloidal fraction from barks of Himatanthus lancifolius." Fitoterapia. 2004 Dec; 75(7-8): 750-3.
Tiwari, T., et al. "Plumieride from Allamanda cathartica as an antidermatophytic agent." Phytother. Res. 2002 Jun; 16(4): 393-4.
Wood, C., et al. "A bioactive spirolactone iridoid and triterpenoids from Himatanthus sucuuba." Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2001; 49(11): 1477-1478.
De Silva, J., et al. "Triterpenic esters from Himatanthus sucuuba (Spruce) Woodson." Quimica Nova 1998; 21(6): 702-704.
Abdel-Kader, M., et al. "Bioactive iridoids and a new lignan from Allamanda cathartica and Himatanthus fallax from the Suriname rainforest." J. Nat. Prod. 1997; 60(12): 1294-7.
Hamburger, M., et al. "Traditional medicinal plants of Thailand. XVII. Biologically active constituents of Plumeria rubra." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1991 Jul; 33(3): 289-92.
Kardono, L., et al. "Cytotoxic constituents of the bark of Plumeria rubra collected in Indonesia." J. Nat. Prod. 1990 Nov-Dec; 53(6): 1447-55.
Jovel, E., et al. "An ethnobotanical study of the traditional medicine of the Mestizo people of Suni Mirano, Loreto, Peru." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1996; (53): 149-156.
Bolzani, V., et al. "Search for antifungal and anticancer compounds from native plant species of cerrado and Atlantic Forest." An. Acad. Bras. Cienc. 1999; 71(2): 181-7.
Persinos-Perdue, G., et al. " South American plants. III. Isolation of fulvoplumierin from Himatanthus sucuuba (Apocynaceae). J. Pharm. Sci. 1978; 67: 1322.
Little, J., et al. "Plumericin; an antimicrobial agent from Plumeria multiflora." Arch. Biochem. 1951; 30(2): 445-52.
Matico (Piper aduncum)
Matico’s effective antifungal and anticandidal actions are thought to be attributed to quite a
few different chemicals present in matico leaves and their essential oil, including dillapiol,
linalool, and nerolidol. Many studies report that matico is as good or better against various
strains of fungi as the antifungal drug, Fluconazole, especially against the fungal strains
causing common skin and nail fungal infections. One chemical named dillapiol, which is high
amounts in matico, can kill some fungal strains in dosages as low as 1 part per million.
Valadares. A., et al. "Essential oils from Piper aduncum inflorescences and leaves: chemical composition and antifungal activity against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum." An. Acad. Bras. Cienc. 2018 Sep; 90(3): 2691-2699.
Dias, I., et al. "Antifungal activity of linalool in cases of Candida spp. isolated from individuals with oral candidiasis." Braz. J. Biol. 2018 May; 78(2): 368-374.
Almeida, C., et al. "Piper Essential oils inhibit Rhizopus oryzae growth, biofilm formation, and rhizopuspepsin activity. Can. J. Infect. Dis. Med. Microbiol. 2018 Jul; 2018: 5295619.
de Oliveira Lima, M., et al. Investigation of the antifungal potential of linalool against clinical isolates of fluconazole resistant Trichophyton rubrum." J. Mycol. Med. 2017 Jun; 27(2): 195-202.
Manoharan, R., et al. "Inhibitory effects of the essential oils α-longipinene and linalool on biofilm formation and hyphal growth of Candida albicans." Biofouling. 2017 Feb; 33(2): 143-155.
da Silva, J., et al. "Phenylpropanoid-rich Essential oils of Piper species from the Amazon and their antifungal and anti-cholinesterase activities." Nat. Prod. Commun. 2016 Dec; 11(12): 1907-1911.
Souza, C., et al. "Antifungal activity of plant-derived essential oils on Candida tropicalis planktonic and biofilms cells." Med. Mycol. 2016 Jul; 54(5): 515-23.
Santos, M., et al. "Antifungal activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves prepared by different solvents and extraction techniques against dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale." Braz. J. Microbiol. 2014 Mar; 44(4): 1275-8.
Curvelo, J., et al."A novel nerolidol-rich essential oil from Piper claussenianum modulates Candida albicans biofilm." J. Med. Microbiol. 2014; 63: 697-702.
Rahman, A., et al. "Antifungal activity of essential oil and extracts of Piper chaba Hunter against phytopathogenic fungi." J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 2011; 88: 573–579.
de Almeida, R., et al. "Chemical variation in Piper aduncum and biological properties of its dillapiole-rich essential oil." Chem. Biodivers. 2009; 6(9):1427-34.
Park M.,et al. "Effect of citral, eugenol, nerolidol and α-terpineol on the ultrastructural changes of Trichophyton mentagrophytes." Fitoterapia. 2009; 80:290–296.
Braga, F., et al. "Antileishmanial and antifungal activity of plants used in traditional medicine in Brazil." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 May; 111(2): 396-402.
Lee S., et al. "Antifungal effect of eugenol and nerolidol against Microsporum gypseum in a guinea pig model." Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2007; 30:184–188.
Navickiene, H., et al. "Composition and antifungal activity of essential oils from Piper aduncum, Piper arboreum and Piper tuberculatum." Quim. Nova. 2006; 20( 3): 467-470.
Lago, J., et al. "Benzoic acid derivatives from Piper species and their fungitoxic activity against Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum." J. Nat. Prod. 2004; 67(11): 1783-8.
Lentz, D., et al. "Antimicrobial properties of Honduran medicinal plants." J. Ethnopharmacol, 1998; 63(3): 253-263.
Trillini, B., et al. "Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Piper angustifolium." Planta Med. 1996; 62(4): 372-373.
Orjala, J., et al. "Two chromenes and a prenylated benzoic acid derivative from Piper aduncum." Phytochemistry. 1993; 34(3): 813-818.
Lemos, T., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Brazilian plants." Phytother. Res. 1990; 4(2): 82-84.
Piri-Piri (Cyperus articulatus)
Xu, H., et al. "Bioactivity-guided isolation of anti-hepatitis B virus active sesquiterpenoids from
the traditional Chinese medicine: rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2015 Aug;
Freires, I., et al. "The effect of essential oils and bioactive fractions on Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans biofilms: A confocal analysis." Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2015; 2015: 871316.
Bersan, S., et al. "Action of essential oils from Brazilian native and exotic medicinal species on oral biofilms." BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 2014 Nov; 14: 451.
Zhang, L., et al. "Inhibitory effects of α-cyperone on adherence and invasion of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli O78 to chicken type II pneumocytes." Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 2014 May; 159(1-2): 50-7.
Muriithi, K. "Ethnobotanical uses, phytochemical analysis, bioactivity and mosquito repellency of Cyperus articulatus L. from the family Cyperaceae from Tharaka Meru." Thesis. Dec 2012. Department of Chemistry, University of Nairobi. Kenya.
Duarte, M., et al. "Anti-candida activity of Brazilian medicinal plants." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Feb; 97(2): 305-11.
Desmarchelier, C., et al. "Studies on the cytotoxicity, antimicrobial and DNA-binding activities of plants used by the Ese'ejas." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1996; 50(2): 91-96.
Mongelli, E., et al. "Antimicrobial activity and interaction with DNA of medicinal plants from the Peruvian Amazon region." Rev. Argent. Microbiol. 1995 Oct-Dec; 27(4): 199-203.
Pau d'arco (Tabebuia impetiginosa)
Pau d'arco contains plant chemicals named lapachol and beta-lapachone which have documented antifungal actions. In test tube studies, an extract of the bark was shown to have strong activity against 11 fungal, candidal, and yeast strains.
Moraes, D., et al. "ß-lapachone and a-nor-lapachone modulate Candida albicans viability and virulence factors." J. Mycol. Med. 2018 Jun; 28(2): 314-319.
Bleve, G., et al. "In vitro activity of antimicrobial compounds against Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of the olive quick decline syndrome in Apulia (Italy)." FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 2018 Mar; 365(5).
Souza, M., et al. "The antimicrobial activity of lapachol and its thiosemicarbazone and semicarbazone derivatives." Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 2013 May; 108(3).
Hofling, J., et al. "Antimicrobial potential of some plant extracts against Candida species." Braz. J. Biol. 2010 Nov; 70(4): 1065-8.
Melo e Silva, F., et al. "Evaluation of the antifungal potential of Brazilian Cerrado medicinal plants." Mycoses. 2009 Nov; 52(6): 511-7.
Pereira, E., et al. "Tabebuia avellanedae naphthoquinones: activity against methicillin-resistant staphylococcal strains, cytotoxic activity and in vivo dermal irritability analysis." Ann. Clin. Microbiol. Antimicrob. 2006 Mar; 5: 5.
Portillo, A., et al. "Antifungal activity of Paraguayan plants used in traditional medicine." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2001; 76(1): 93-8.
Nagata, K., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of novel furanonaphthoquinone analogs." Antimicrobial Agents Chemother. 1998; 42(3): 700-2.
Binutu, O., et al. "Antimicrobial potentials of some plant species of the Bignoniaceae family." Afr. J. Med. Sci. 1994; 23(3): 269-73.
Giuraud, P., et al. "Comparison of antibacterial and antifungal activities of lapachol and b-lapachone." Planta Med. 1994; 60: 373-74.
Anesini, C., et al. "Screening of plants used in Argentine folk medicine for antimicrobial activity." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1993; 39(2): 119-28.
Gershon, H., et al. "Fungitoxicity of 1,4-naphthoquinonoes to Candida albicans and Trichophyton menta grophytes." Can. J. Microbiol. 1975; 21: 1317-21.
Ubos (Spondias mombin)
Ubos bark has been reported with antibacterial actions in test tube studies against Pseudomonas
aeruginosa and Bacillus cereus. It was also reported to inhibit human rotovirus by 82% in vitro
which might explain its long standing use for diarrhea. In other in vitro testing researchers also
reported that ubos bark has strong antifungal and anticandidal actions. The bark and the leaves
of this tree have shown to have antibacterial and antifungal actions against some species that
are stronger than the conventional drugs used to treat them.
Temitope, O., et al. "Synergistic antibacterial and antifungal activities of Spondias mombin extracts and conventional antibiotic and antifungal agents on selected clinical microorganisms." Sch. J. App. Med. Sci. 2017; 5(2A): 307-318
Olugbuyiro, J., et al. "Phytosterols from Spondias mombin Linn with antimycobacterial activities." Afr. J. Biomed. Res. 2013 Jan; 16(1): 19-24.
Olugbuyiro, J., et al. "Anti-tubercular compounds from Spondias mombin." Intl. J. Pure Appl. Sci. Tech. 2013; 19(2): 76-87.
Okwuosa O., et al. "Phytochemical and antifungal activities of Uvaria chamae leaves and roots, Spondias mombin leaves and bark and Combretum racemosum leaves." Afr. J. Med. Med. Sci. 2012 Dec; 41 Suppl: 99-103.
da Silva, A., et al. "Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of two Spondias species from Northeastern Brazil." Pharm. Biol. 2012 Jun; 50(6): 740-6.
Amadi, E., et al. "Studies on the antimicrobial effects of Spondias mombin and Baphia nittida on dental caries organism." Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 2007 Feb; 10(3): 393-7.
Kang, E., et al. "The flavonoid ellagic acid from a medicinal herb inhibits host immune tolerance induced by the hepatitis B virus-e antigen." Antiviral Res. 2006; 72(2): 100-6. Herforth, A., "Anti-fungal plants of the Peruvian Amazon: A survey of ethnomedical uses and biological activity." Emanations from the Rainforest and the Carribean. Vol. 4 Sept. 2002, Cornell University
Kramer, A., et al. "Ethnobotany and biological activity of plants utilized during pregnancy and childbirth in the Peruvian Amazon." Emanations from the Rainforest and the Carribean Vol. 4 Sept. 2002, Cornell University.
Flood, K., et al. "Phytochemical analysis of Cedrela odorata and Spondias mombin, two dietary sources of Callithrix pygmea on the Yarapa river in the Amazon basin of Peru." Emanations from the Rainforest and the Carribean Vol. 4 Sept. 2002, Cornell University.
Calderon, A., et al. "Forest plot as a tool to demonstrate the pharmaceutical potential of plants in a tropical forest of Panama." Econ. Bot. 2000; 54(3): 278-294.
Banos, S., et al. "Antifungal screening of plants of the state of Morelos, Mexico against four fungal postharvest pathogens of fruits and vegetables." Rev. Mex. Fitopath. 2000 Jun; 18(1): 36-41.
Abo, K., et al. "Antimicrobial potential of Spondias mombin, Croton zambesicus and Zygotritonia crocea." Phytother. Res. 1999; 13(6): 494-497.
Coates, N., et al. "SB-202742, A novel beta-lactamase inhibitor isolated from Spondias mombin." J. Nat. Prod. 1994; 57(5): 654-657.
Ramirez, V., et al., "Vegetales empleados en medicina tradicional Norperuana." Banco Agrario Del Peru & Nacl. Univ. Trujillo, Trujillo, Peru, June, 1988 Page 54.
Fedegoso (Cassia occidentalis)
Fedegoso has been traditionally used for many types of bacteria and fungal infections for many years in the tropical countries where it grows. In vitro laboratory research on fedegoso leaves published over the years has reported active antifungal properties.*
Li, S., and Li S., Cycloartane triterpenoid and its glucoside isolated from Cassia occidentalis." Chin J. Nat. Med. 2017 Dec; 15(12): 950-954.
Bhagat, M., et al. "Evaluation of Cassia occidentalis for in vitro cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines and antibacterial activity." Indian J. Pharmacol. 2010 Aug; 42(4): 234-7.
Li, S., et al. "Cycloartane triterpenoids from Cassia occidentalis." Planta Med. 2012 May; 78(8): 821-7.
Samy, R., et al. "Antibacterial activity of some folklore medicinal plants used by tribals in Western Ghats of India." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2000; 69(1): 63-71.
Anesini, C., et al. "Screening of plants used in Argentine folk medicine for antimicrobial activity." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1993; 39(2): 119-28.
Caceres, A., et al. "Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. 1. Screening for antimycotic activity of 44 plant extracts." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1991; 31(3): 263-76.
Hussain, H., et al. "Plants in Kano ethomedicine: screening for antimicrobial activity and alkaloids." Int. J. Pharmacog. 1991; 29(1): 51-6.
Gaind, K., et al. "Antibiotic activity of Cassia occidentalis." Indian J. Pharmacy 1966; 28(9): 248-50.
Tamamuri (Brosimum acutifolium)
Researchers at Cornell University reported that tamamuri bark showed in vitro antibacterial
actions against Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Helicobacter pylori and Candida albicans in research
published in 2002. They also reported that it was active against a common strain of skin fungus.
These actions are probably directely related to two chemicals found in tamamuri, liquiritigenin
and 4-hydroxylonchocarpin, which both have strong actions against bacteria and fungi.
Soares et al., "In vitro antifungal activity and cytotoxicity screening of dry crude extracts from Brazilian Amazonia plants." Afr. J. Tradit. Complement. Altern. Med. 2018; 15 (4): 13-21.
Oliveira, A., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of Amazonian medicinal plants." SpringerPlus. 2013 Dec; 2: 371.
Kuete, V., et al. "Chemistry and pharmacology of 4-hydroxylonchocarpin: A review." Chin. J. Integr. Med. 2013 Jun; 19(6): 475-80.
Feldman, M., et al. "Comparative evaluation of two structurally related flavonoids, isoliquiritigenin and liquiritigenin, for their oral infection therapeutic potential." J. Nat. Prod. 2011 Sep; 74(9): 1862-7.
Lee, J., et al. "Liquiritigenin, a licorice flavonoid, helps mice resist disseminated candidiasis due to Candida albicans by Th1 immune response, whereas liquiritin, its glycoside form, does not." Int. Immunopharmacol. 2009 May; 9(5): 632-8.
Correia, A., et al. "Amazonian plant crude extract screening for activity against multidrug-resistant bacteria." Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2008 Nov-Dec; 12(6): 369-80.
Herforth, A., et al. "Amazonian Women's Medicine: Treatments for Mycoses." Poster: Society for Economic Botany 2002 vol 56(4).
Herforth, A., et al. " Antifungal plants of the Peruvian Amazon: A survey of ethnomedical uses and biological activity." Cornel University Publication 2002.
Guaco (Mikania guaco)
Guaco contains at least three plant compounds which have been documented with broad spectrum antifungal and anticandidal actions.
Jia, C., et al. "Antifungal activity of coumarin against Candida albicans is related to apoptosis." Front Cell. Infect. Microbiol. 2019 Jan; 8: 445.
Martins, C., et al. "Kaurenoic acid and its sodium salt derivative: antibacterial activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis and their mechanism of action." Future Microbiol. 2018 Nov; 13: 1585-1601.
Song, P., et al. "Evaluation of antifungal activities and structure-activity relationships of coumarin derivatives." Pest Manag. Sci. 2017 Jan; 73(1): 94-101.
Li, Y., et al. "Antimicrobial constituents of the leaves of Mikania micrantha H. B. K." PLoS One. 2013 Oct; 8(10): e76725.
Jeong, S., "Kaurenoic acid from Aralia continentalis inhibits biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans." Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2013; 2013: 160592.
Ushimaru, R., et al. "In vitro antibacterial activity of medicinal plant extracts against Escherichia coli strains from human clinical specimens and interactions with antimicrobial drugs." Nat. Prod. Res. 2012; 26(16): 1553-7.
de Andrade, B., et al. "Evaluation of ent-kaurenoic acid derivatives for their anticariogenic activity." Nat. Prod. Commun. 2011 Jun; 6(6): 777-80.
Laurella, L., et al. "In vitro evaluation of antiprotozoal and antiviral activities of extracts from Argentinean Mikania species." Scientific World Journal. 2012; 2012: 121253.
Montagner, C., et al. "Antifungal activity of coumarins." Z. Naturforsch C. 2008 Jan-Feb; 63(1-2): 21-8.
dos Santos, S., et al. "LC characterisation of guaco medicinal extracts, Mikania laevigata and M. glomerata, and their effects on allergic pneumonitis." Planta Med. 2006 Jun; 72(8): 679-84.
Betoni, J., et al. "Synergism between plant extract and antimicrobial drugs used on Staphylococcus aureus diseases." Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 2006 Jun; 101(4): 387-90.
Yatsuda, R., et al. "Effects of Mikania genus plants on growth and cell adherence of Mutans streptococci." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005; 97(2): 183-9.
Duarte, M., et al. "Anti-Candida activity of Brazilian medicinal plants." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005; 97(2): 305.
Cotoras, M., et al. "Characterization of the antifungal activity on Botrytis cinerea of the natural diterpenoids kaurenoic acid and 3beta-hydroxy-kaurenoic acid." J. Agric. Food Chem. 2004 May; 52(10): 2821-6.
Holetz, F. "Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases." Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 2002 Oct; 97(7): 1027-31.
Rungeler, P., et al. "Germacranolides from Mikania guaco." Phytochemistry 2001; 56(5): 475-89.
Facey, P., et al. "Investigation of plants used in Jamaican folk medicine for anti-bacterial activity." J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1999 Dec; 51(12): 1455-60.
Davino, S., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of kaurenoic acid derivatives substituted on carbon-15." Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 1989; 22(9): 1127-9.
Graviola (Annona muricata)
Graviola (and various acetogenin chemicals found in graviola) have been documented to inhibit ATP energy to mutated cells with efflux pumps (also called P-glycoprotein mediated pump) and shut them down. These small pumps can be found in candida, cancer, fungi, and bacteria cells which make these pathogens resistant and even immune to chemical agents meant to kill them (multi-drug resistant). Graviola was also shown to have a direct killing action against Candida and fungi in 2018.*
Rrasad, R., et al. "Efflux pumps in drug resistance of Candida." Infect. Disord. Drug Targets. 2006 Jun; 6(2): 69-83.
Pourakbari, B., et al. "Expression of major efflux pumps in fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans." Infect. Disord. Drug Targets. 2017; 17(3): 178-184.
Kuete, V., et al. "Cytotoxicity of methanol extracts of Annona muricata, Passiflora edulis and nine other Cameroonian medicinal plants towards multi-factorial drug-resistant cancer cell lines. Springerplus. 2016 Sep; 5(1): 1666.
Qian, J., et al. “Annonaceous acetogenins reverses drug resistance of human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7402/5-FU and HepG2/ADM cell lines.” Int. J. Clin. Exp. Pathol. 2015 Sep; 8(9): 11934-44.
Keinan, E., et al. "Antibody-catalyzed organic and organometallic transformations and chemical libraries of Annonaceous acetogenins." The Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology Scientific Report 1997-1998.
Nicolas, H., et al. "Structure-activity relationships of diverse Annonaceous acetogenins against multidrug resistant human mammary adenocarcinoma (MCF-7/Adr) cells." J. Med. Chem. 1997; 40(13): 2102-6.
Gonzalez-Coloma, A., et al. “Selective action of acetogenin mitochondrial complex I inhibitors.” Z. Naturforsch. 2002; 57(11-12): 1028-34.
Simo, M., et al. "Cameroonian medicinal plants belonging to Annonaceae family: radical scavenging and antifungal activities." Nat. Prod. Res. 2018 Sep; 32(17): 2092-2095.