Amazon C-F Support
Amazon C-F Extract

2 fluid ounces (60 ml)

This product is no longer sold by Raintree Nutrition, Inc. See the main product page for more information why. Try doing a google search or see the rainforest products page to find other companies selling rainforest herbal supplements or rainforest plants if you want to make this rainforest formula yourself.

A synergistic formula of 10 rainforest botanicals which have been traditionally used in South America for colds and flu.* For more information on the individual ingredients in Amazon C-F, follow the links provided below to the plant database files in the Tropical Plant Database. More information can also be found in the new Antimicrobial Guide.

Ingredients: A proprietary blend of cat's claw, culen, amor seco, cumaseba, fedegoso, pic„o preto, mullaca, clavillia, simarouba, Brazilian peppertree, gerv‚o, guaco, ajos sacha, and bitter melon extracted in distilled water and vegetable glycerine. To prepare this natural remedy yourself: use three parts picao preto, and 1 part each of the remaining herbs in the list. To make a small amount... "1 part" could be one tablespoon (you'd have 16 tablespoons of the blended herbal formula). For larger amounts, use "1 part" as one ounce or one cup or one pound. Combine all the herbs together well. The herbal mixture can then be stuffed into capsules or brewed into tea, stirred into juice or other liquid, or taken however you'd like. To make this into an extract, prepare a Strong Decoction using the instructions show on the Making Herbal Remedies page, and add half as much vegetable glycerine or honey as the volume you have of the finished decoction. (example: if you had 1 cup of strong decoction after filtering, add 1/2 cup of honey or glycerine). Mix well and store in the refrigerator.

Suggested Use: Take 10 drops for every 20 pounds in body weight, 2-3 times daily for the extract. Use 1 tsp powdered herb to make a cup of tea/infusion 2-3 times daily.

Contraindications: Not to be used during pregnancy or while breast-feeding.

Drug Interactions: None reported.

Other Practitioner Observations: This formula contains plants that have demonstrated significant antimicrobial properties in laboratory studies.* Supplementing the diet with probiotics and digestive enzymes is advisable when this product is used for longer than 15 days.





Third-Party Published Research*

This rainforest formula has not been the subject of any clinical research. A partial listing of third-party published research on each herbal ingredient in the formula is shown below. Please refer to the plant database files by clicking on the plant names below to see all available documentation and research on each plant ingredient.

Cat's Claw (Uncaria tomentosa)
Cat's claw has been documented to boost the immune system to help fight viruses and bacteria naturally and it has it's own antimicrobial actions as well.
Domingues, A., et al. "Uncaria tomentosa aqueous-ethanol extract triggers an immunomodulation toward a Th2 cytokine profile." Phytother Res. 2011 Aug;25(8):1229-35
Reis, S., et al. "Immunomodulating and antiviral activities of Uncaria tomentosa on human monocytes infected with Dengue Virus-2." Int. Immunopharmacol. 2008; 8(3): 468-76.
Herrera, D., et al. "In vitro antimicrobial activity of phytotherapic Uncaria tomentosa against endodontic pathogens." J Oral Sci. 2010 Sep;52(3):473-6.
Chen, X., et al. "Effects of rhynchophylline and isorhynchophylline on nitric oxide and endothelin-1 secretion from RIMECs induced by Listeriolysin o in vitro." Vet. Microbiol. 2009 Nov 26.
Ccahuana-Vasquez, R., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of Uncaria tomentosa against oral human pathogens." Braz. Oral Res. 2007 Jan-Mar; 21(1): 46-50.
Spelman, K., et al. "Modulation of cytokine expression by traditional medicines: a review of herbal immunomodulators." Altern. Med. Rev. 2006 Jun; 11(2): 128-50.
Kloucek, P., et al. “Antibacterial screening of some Peruvian medicinal plants used in Calleria District.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Jun; 99(2): 309-12.
Garcia, R., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of isopteropodine.” Z. Naturforsch. 2005; 60(5-6): 385-8.
Aquino, R., et al. “Plant metabolites. Structure and in vitro antiviral activity of quinovic acid glycosides from Uncaria tomentosa and Guettarda platypoda." J. Nat. Prod. 1989; 4(52): 679–85.

Culen
Culen is used traditionally in South America for cold, flu, coughs and upper respiratory infections and problems. It has been documented with antimicrobial actions against viruses, bacteria and fungi in the research cited below.
Madrid, A., et al. "Antifungal study of the resinous exudate and of meroterpenoids isolated from Psoralea glandulosa (Fabaceae)." J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Dec 18;144(3):809-11
Lau, K., et al. "Two antifungal components isolated from Fructus Psoraleae and Folium Eucalypti Globuli by bioassay-guided purification." Am J Chin Med. 2010;38(5):1005-14.
Hsu, P., et al. "Bakuchiol, an antibacterial component of Psoralidium tenuiflorum." Nat Prod Res. 2009;23(8):781-8.
Bondarenko, A., et al. “Antimicrobial and antiviral activity of essential oil from Psoralea drupacea and its activity.” Rast. Resur. 1974; 583.
Bondarenko, A., et al. “Extraction from Psoralea drupaccea of bakuchiol and its antimicrobial activity.” Tr. Sezda. Mikrobiol. Ukr. 4th ed. (Ed Zatula Dg) "Naukova Duma" Kiev USSR (1975) pp. 208.
Erazo, S., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of Psoralea glandulosa L.” Int. J. Pharmacog. 1997; 35(5): 385-387.
Kaul, R. “Kinetics of the antistaphylococcal activity of bakuchiol in vitro.” Arzneim-Forsch. 1976; (26): 486-513.
Bondarenko, A., et al. “Psoralea drupacea as a promising source of the antibiotic bakuchiol.” Rast. Resur. 1977; 460-473.
Prikhod’ko, V., et al. “Antimicrobial activity and toxicity of the antibiotic bakuchiol.” Mikrobiol. Zh. (Kiev) 1980; 42(5): 646-650.
Katsura, H., et al. “In vitro antimicrobial activities of bakuchiol against oral microorganisms.” Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2001; 45(11): 3009-3013.
Newton, S., et al. “The evaluation of forty-three plant species for in vitro antimycobacterial activities; Isolation of active contituents from Psoralea corylifolia and Sanguinaria canadensis. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002; 79(1): 57-67.
Prikhod’ko, V., et al. “Study of the antimicrobial properties of bakuchiol in in vitro experiments.” Mikrobiol. Zh. (Kiev) 1979; 41(4): 400-403.
Noronha, R., et al. “Composition for skin care containing a combination of bakuchiol and pyridinecarboxaldehyde.” German Patent, 1985. Ger Offen #3,417,234.
Rao, P. N. “Prospecting plant aids in AIDS management.” Curr. Sci. 2000 May; 78(10): 56-58.

Amor Seco (Desmodium adscendens)
Amor Seco's traditional uses for asthma and bronchitis and been verified by the research cited below.
Iriť-N'guessan, G., et al. "Tracheal relaxation of five Ivorian anti-asthmatic plants: role of epithelium and K? channels in the effect of the aqueous-alcoholic extract of Dichrostachys cinerea root bark." J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Nov 18;138(2):432-8.
Addy, M. E., et al. “Dose-response effects of Desmodium adscendens aqueous extract on histamine response, content and anaphylactic reactions in the guinea pig.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1996; 18(1): 13–20.
Addy, M. E., et al. “Effect of Desmodium adscendens fraction 3 on contractions of respiratory smooth muscle.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1990; 29(3): 325–35.
Addy, M. E., et al. “Effect of Desmodium adscendens fraction F1 (DAFL) on tone and agonist-induced contractions of guinea pig airway smooth muscle.” Phytother. Res. 1989; 3(3): 85–90.
Addy, M. E., et al. “Several chromatographically distinct fractions of Desmodium adscendens inhibit smooth muscle contractions.” Int. J. Crude Drug Res. 1989; 27(2): 81–91.
Addy, M. E., et al. “Effect of Desmodium adscendens fractions on antigen- and arachidonic acid-induced contractions of guinea pig airways.” Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 1987; 66(6): 820–25.
Addy, M. E., et al. “Effects of the extracts of Desmodium adscendens on anaphylaxis.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1984; 11(3): 283–92.

Cumaseba (Swartzia polyphylla)
Cumaseba has traditionally been used for for colds, flu, tuberculosis and other upper respiratory bacterial infections. Scientific research is beginning to validate these natural remedy uses. Some research cited belowe has attributed cumaseba's antiviral action against the influenza virus to flavonoid chemicals found in cumaseba.
Sithisarn, P., et al. "Differential antiviral and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the flavonoids biochanin A and baicalein in H5N1 influenza A virus-infected cells." Antiviral Res. 2012 Oct 23.
Rojas, R., et al. “Anti-mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of Peruvian plants.” Plant Med. 2004: 101.
Rojas, R., et al. “Larvicidal, antimycobacterial and antifungal compounds from the bark of the Peruvian plant Swartzia polyphylla DC.” Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2006; 54(2): 278-279.
Herforth, A., et al. “Antifungal plants of the Peruvian Amazon: A survey of ethnomedical uses and biological activity.” Cornel University Publication 2002.
Osawa, K., et al. “Isoflavanones from the heartwood of Swartzia polyphylla and their antibacterial activity against cariogenic bacteria.” Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1992; 40(11): 2970-2974.
Du Bois, J. L., et al. “Dihydrolicoisoflavone, a new isoflavanone from Swartzia polyphylla.” J. Nat. Prod. 1995: 58(4): 629-632.

Fedegoso (Cassia occidentalis)
Fedegoso has been documented with antibacterial actions in the research cited below. One study also reports fedegoso stimulates immune function.
Bhagat, M., et al. "Evaluation of Cassia occidentalis for in vitro cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines and antibacterial activity." Indian J Pharmacol. 2010 Aug;42(4):234-7.
Li, S., et al. "Cycloartane triterpenoids from Cassia occidentalis." Planta Med. 2012 May;78(8):821-7.
Evans CE, et al. “Efficacy of some nupe medicinal plants against Salmonella typhi: an in vitro study.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Apr; 80(1): 21-4.
Bin-Hafeez, B., et al. “Protective effect of Cassia occidentalis L. on cyclophosphamide-induced suppression of humoral immunity in mice.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2001; 75(1): 13–18.
Samy, R. P., et al. “Antibacterial activity of some folklore medicinal plants used by tribals in Western Ghats of India.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2000; 69(1): 63–71.
Anesini, C., et al. “Screening of plants used in Argentine folk medicine for antimicrobial activity.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1993; 39(2): 119–28.
Caceres, A., et al. “Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. 1. Screening for antimycotic activity of 44 plant extracts.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1991; 31(3): 263–76.
Hussain, H., et al. “Plants in Kano ethomedicine: screening for antimicrobial activity and alkaloids.” Int. J. Pharmacog. 1991; 29(1): 51–6.
Gaind, K. N., et al. “Antibiotic activity of Cassia occidentalis.” Indian J. Pharmacy 1966; 28(9): 248–50.

Picão Preto (Bidens pilosa)
Picão preto has been documented with actions against bacteria, viruses and mycobacteria.
Nakama, S., et al. "Efficacy of Bidens pilosa Extract against Herpes Simplex Virus Infection In Vitro and In Vivo." Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:413453.
Adedapo, A., et al. "Comparison of the nutritive value and biological activities of the acetone, methanol and water extracts of the leaves of Bidens pilosa and Chenopodium album." Acta Pol Pharm. 2011 Jan-Feb;68(1):83-92.
Tobinaga, S., et al. "Isolation and identification of a potent antimalarial and antibacterial polyacetylene from Bidens pilosa." Planta Med. 2009 May;75(6):624-8.
Rojas, J. J., et al. "Screening for antimicrobial activity of ten medicinal plants used in Colombian folkloric medicine: A possible alternative in the treatment of non-nosocomial infections." BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 2006 Feb; 6(1): 2.
Khan, M. R., et al. “Anti-microbial activity of Bidens pilosa, Bischofia javanica, Elmerillia papuana and Sigesbekia orientalis.” Fitoterapia. 2001; 72(6): 662–65.
Chariandy, C. M., et al. “Screening of medicinal plants from Trinidad and Tobago for antimicrobial and insecticidal properties.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1999; 64(3): 265–70.
Rabe, T. “Antibacterial activity of South African plants used for medicinal purposes.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1997; 56(1): 81–7.
van Puyvelde, L., et al. “In vitro inhibition of mycobacteria by Rwandese medicinal plants.” Phytother. Res. 1994; 8(2): 65–9.
Desta, B. “Ethiopian traditional herbal drugs. Part II: Antimicrobial activity of 63 medicinal plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1993; 39(2): 129–39.
Sarg, T. M., et al. “Constituents and biological activity of Bidens pilosa l grown in Egypt.” Acta. Pharm. Hung. 1991; 61(6): 317–23.
Geissberger, P., et al. “Constituents of Bidens pilosa L.: do the components found so far explain the use of this plant in traditional medicine?” Acta Trop. 1991; 48(4): 251–61.
Hudson, J. B., et al. “Investigation of the antiviral action of the photoactive compound phenylheptatriyne.” Photochem. Photobiol. 1986; 43(1): 27–33.
Boily, Y., et al. “Screening of medicinal plants of Rwanda (central Africa) for antimicrobial activity.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1986; 16(1): 1–13.
Bondarenko, A. S., et al. “The antimicrobial properties of the polyacetylene antibiotic phenylheptatriyne.” Mikrobiol. Zh. 1985; 47(2): 81–3.
Hudson, J. B., et al. “Nature of the interaction between the photoactive compound phenylheptatriyne and animal viruses.” Photochem. Photobiol. 1982; 36(2): 181–85.
Arnason, T., et al. “Photosensitization of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae by phenylheptatriyne from Bidens pilosa.” Can. J. Microbiol. 1980; 26(6): 698–705.

Mullaca (Physalis angulata)
Mullaca has been reported to have broad-spectrum antimicrobal actions agains numerous pathogens (bacteria, mycobacteria, mycoplasma, viruses).
Osho, A., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Physalis angulata. L." Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2010;7(4):303-6.
Silva, M. T., et al. “Studies on antimicrobial activity, in vitro, of Physalis angulata L. (Solanaceae) fraction and physalin B bringing out the importance of assay determination.” Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 2005 Nov; 100(7): 779-82.
Hwang, J. K., et al. “Anticariogenic activity of some tropical medicinal plants against Streptococcus mutans.” Fitoterapia. 2004 Sep; 75(6): 596-8.
Pietro, R. C., et al. “In vitro antimycobacterial activities of Physalis angulata L.” Phytomedicine 2000; 7(4): 335–38.
Januario, A. H., et al. “Antimycobacterial physalins from Physalis angulata L. (Solanaceae).” Phytother. Res. 2002; 16(5): 445-48.
Hussain, H., et al. “Plants in Kano ethnomedicine; screening for antimicrobial activity and alkaloids.” Int. J. Pharmacol. 1991; 29(1): 51–56.
Otake, T., et al. “Screening of Indonesian plant extracts for anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Type 1 (HIV-1) Activity.” Phytother. Res. 1995; 9(1): 6–10.
Kurokawa, M., et al. “Antiviral traditional medicines against Herpes simplex virus (HSV-1), polio virus, and measles virus in vitro and their therapeutic efficacies for HSV-1 infection in mice." Antiviral Res. 1993; 22(2/3): 175–88.
Kusumoto, I. T., et al. “Screening of some Indonesian medicinal plants for inhibitory effects on HIV-1 protease.” Shoyakugaku Zasshi 1992; 46(2): 190-93.
Ogunlana, E. O., et al. “Investigations into the antibacterial activities of local plants.” Planta Med. 1975; 27: 354.

Clavillia (Mirabilis jalapa)
Clavillia's antiviral actions come from a group of chemicals called Mirabilis Antiviral Proteins or MAP. One study reports clavillia's antihistimine actions.
Maxia, A., et al. "Inhibition of histamine mediated responses by Mirabilis jalapa: confirming traditional claims made about antiallergic and antiasthmatic activity." Nat Prod Res. 2010 Nov;24(18):1681-6.
Michalet, S., "N-caffeoylphenalkylamide derivatives as bacterial efflux pump inhibitors." Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2007 Mar; 17(6): 1755-8.
Bolognesi, A. et al. “Ribosome-inactivating and adenine polynucleotide glycosylase activities in Mirabilis jalapa L. tissues.” J. Biol. Chem. 2002; 277(16) 13709–16.
Yang, S. W., et al. “Three new phenolic compounds from a manipulated plant cell culture, Mirabilis jalapa.” J. Nat. Prod. 2001; 64(3): 313–17.
Vivanco, J. M., et al. “Characterization of two novel type 1 ribosome-inactivating proteins from the storage roots of the Andean crop Mirabilis expansa.” Plant Physiol. 1999; 119(4): 1447–56.
Dimayuga, R. E., et al. ”Antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants from Baja California Sur (Mexico).” Pharmaceutical Biol. 1998; 36(1): 33–43.
De Bolle, M. F., et al. “Antimicrobial peptides from Mirabilis jalapa and Amarantus caudatus: expression, processing, localization and biological activity in transgenic tobacco.” Plant Mol. Biol. 1996; 31(5): 993–1008.
Kataoka, J., et al. “Adenine depurination and inactivation of plant ribosomes by an antiviral protein of Mirabilis jalapa (MAP).” Plant Mol. Biol. 1992; 20(6): 111–19.
Wong, R. N., et al. “Characterization of Mirabilis antiviral protein—a ribosome inactivating protein from Mirabilis jalapa L.” Biochem. Int. 1992; 28(4): 585–93.
Cammue, B. P., et al. “Isolation and characterization of a novel class of plant antimicrobial peptides from Mirabilis jalapa L. seeds.” J. Biol. Chem. 1992; 267(4): 2228–33.
Caceres, A., et al. “Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. Screening for antimycotic activity of 44 plant extracts.” J. Ethnophamacol. 1991; 31(3): 263–76.
Kusamba, C., et al. “Antibacterial activity of Mirabilis jalapa seed powder.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1991; 35(2): 197–99.
Caceres, A., et al. “Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1987; 20(3): 223–37.

Simarouba (Simarouba amara)
Simarouba has been doucmented with anti-viral actions in the research cited below.
Valdes, A., et al. "In vitro anti-microbial activity of the Cuban medicinal plants Simarouba glauca DC, Melaleuca leucadendron L and Artemisia absinthium L." Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2008 Sep;103(6):615-8.
Apers, S., et al. "Antiviral activity of simalikalactone D, a quassinoid from Quassia africana." Planta Med. 2002 Jan;68(1):20-4.
Morre, D. J., et al. “Effect of the quassinoids glaucarubolone and simalikalactone D on growth of cells permanently infected with feline and human immunodeficiency viruses and on viral infections.” Life Sci. 1998; 62(3): 213-9.
Rahman, S., et al. “Anti-tuberculosis activity of quassinoids.” Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1997; 45(9): 1527-9.
Kaif-A-Kamb, M., et al. “Search for new antiviral agents of plant origin.” Pharm. Acta Helv. 1992; 67(5–6): 130–147.
Caceres, A. “Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. 1. Screening of 84 plants against enterobacteria." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1990; 30(1): 55–73.
May, G., et al. “Antiviral activity of aqueous extracts from medicinal plants in tissue cultures.” Arzneim-Forsch 1978; 28(1): 1–7.

Brazilian Peppertree (Schinus molle)
Brazillian peppertree has been studied extensively and patented for the broad-spectrum antimicrobial actions it provides.
Gomes, F., et al. "Antimicrobial lectin from Schinus terebinthifolius leaf." J Appl Microbiol. 2012 Nov 28.
Rocha, P., et al. "Synergistic Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oil of Aguaribay (Schinus molle L.)." Molecules. 2012 Oct 12;17(10):12023-36.
Montanari, R., et al. "Exposure to Anacardiaceae volatile oils and their constituents induces lipid peroxidation within food-borne bacteria cells." Molecules. 2012 Aug 14;17(8):9728-40
Moura-Costa, G., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of plants used as medicinals on an indigenous reserve in Rio das Cobras, ParanŠ, Brazil." J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Sep 28;143(2):631-8.
Leite, S., et al. "Randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of the vaginal use of metronidazole with a Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus) extract for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis." Braz J Med Biol Res. 2011 Mar;44(3):245-52
Johann, S., et al. "Antifungal activity of schinol and a new biphenyl compound isolated from Schinus terebinthifolius against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis." Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2010 Oct 12;9:30.
Pereira, E., et al. "In vitro antimicrobial activity of Brazilian medicinal plant extracts against pathogenic microorganisms of interest to dentistry." Planta Med. 2011 Mar;77(4):401-4.
Johann, S., et al. "Antifungal activity of extracts of some plants used in Brazilian traditional medicine against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis." Pharm Biol. 2010 Apr;48(4):388-96.
Johann, S., et al. "Antifungal activity of schinol and a new biphenyl compound isolated from Schinus terebinthifolius against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis" Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2010; 9: 30.
Salazar-Aranda, R., et al. "Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Plants from Northeast of Mexico" Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011; 2011: 536139.
Salazar-Aranda, R., et al. "Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Plants from Northeast of Mexico." Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2009 Sep 21.
El-Massry, K., et al. "Chemical compositions and antioxidant/antimicrobial activities of various samples prepared from Schinus terebinthifolius leaves cultivated in Egypt." J. Agric. Food Chem. 2009 Jun; 57(12): 5265-70.
Hayouni el, A., et al. "Tunisian Salvia officinalis L. and Schinus molle L. essential oils: their chemical compositions and their preservative effects against Salmonella inoculated in minced beef meat." Int. J. Food Microbiol. 2008 Jul; 125(3): 242-51.
Molina-Salinas, G., et al. "Evaluation of the flora of Northern Mexico for in vitro antimicrobial and antituberculosis activity." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Aug 23;
de Lima, M. R., et al. “Anti-bacterial activity of some Brazilian medicinal plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Apr; 105(1-2): 137-47.
Schmourlo, G., et al. “Screening of antifungal agents using ethanol precipitation and bioautography of medicinal and food plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Jan; 96(3): 563-8.
de Carvalho, M. C. “Evaluation of mutagenic activity in an extract of pepper tree stem bark (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi).” Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 2003; 42(3): 185-91.
de Melo, Jr., E. J., et al. “Medicinal plants in the healing of dry socket in rats: Microbiological and microscopic analysis.” Phytomedicine. 2002; 9(2): 109–16.
Quiroga, E. N., et al. “Screening antifungal activities of selected medicinal plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2001; 74(1): 89–96.
Camano, R. “Essential oil composition with bactericide activity.” United States patent 5,635,184; June 3, 1997.
Camano, R. “Method for treating bacterial infections.” United States patent 5,512,284; April 30, 1996.
Martinez, M. J., et al. “Screening of some Cuban medicinal plants for antimicrobial activity.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1996; 52(3): 171–74.
Cuella, M. J., et al. “Two fungal lanostane derivatives as phospholipase A2 inhibitors.” J. Nat. Prod. 1996; 59(10): 977–79.
Gundidza, M., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of essential oil from Schinus molle Linn.” Central African J. Med. 1993; 39(11): 231–34.
Dikshit, A. “Schinus molle: a new source of natural fungitoxicant.” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1986; 51(5): 1085–88.
El-Keltawi, N., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of some Egyptian aromatic plants.” Herba Pol. 1980; 26(4): 245–50.
Ross, S., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of some Egyptian aromatic plants.” Fitoterapia. 1980; 51: 201–5.
Simons, J., et al. “Succulent-type as sources of plant virus inhibitors.” Phytopathology. 1963; 53: 677–83.

Gervâo (Stachytarpheta jamaicensis)
Gervao's traditional uses for colds and flu might be validated by the bronchodilator and antihistamine glycoside chemicals found in the plant. It has also shown antibacterial, antiviral and pain-relieving actions as well.
Lee, J., et al. "Anti-asthmatic effects of phenylpropanoid glycosides from Clerodendron trichotomum leaves and Rumex gmelini herbes in conscious guinea-pigs challenged with aerosolized ovalbumin." Phytomedicine. 2011 Jan 15;18(2-3):134-42.
Lee, J. H., et al. "The effect of acteoside on histamine release and arachidonic acid release in RBL-2H3 mast cells." Arch. Pharm. Res. 2006 Jun; 29(6): 508-13.
Hazekamp, A., et al. “Isolation of a bronchodilator flavonoid from the Thai medicinal plant Clerodendrum petasites.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2001; 78(1): 45–9.
Isacchi, N., et al. "Antihyperalgesic activity of verbascoside in two models of neuropathic pain." J Pharm Pharmacol. 2011 Apr;63(4):594-601.
Akdemir, Z., et al. "Bioassay-guided isolation of anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and wound healer glycosides from the flowers of Verbascum mucronatum Lam." J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Jul 14;136(3):436-43.
Speranza, L., et al. "Antiinflammatory effects in THP-1 cells treated with verbascoside." Phytother Res. 2010 Sep;24(9):1398-404.
Yamada, P., et al. "Inhibitory effect of acteoside isolated from Cistanche tubulosa on chemical mediator release and inflammatory cytokine production by RBL-2H3 and KU812 cells." Planta Med. 2010 Oct;76(14):1512-8.
Sulaiman, M., et al. "Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae) in experimental animal models." Med Princ Pract. 2009;18(4):272-9.
Martins, F., et al. "Verbascoside isolated from Lepechinia speciosa has inhibitory activity against HSV-1 and HSV-2 in vitro." Nat Prod Commun. 2009 Dec;4(12):1693-6.
Bermejo, P., et al. “Antiviral activity of seven iridoids, three saikosaponins and one phenylpropanoid glycoside extracted from Bupleurum rigidum and Scrophularia scorodonia.” Planta Med. 2002; 68(2): 106–10.
Didry, N., et al. “Isolation and antibacterial activity of phenylpropanoid derivatives from Ballota nigra.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1999; 67(2): 197–202.
Chariandy, C. M., et al. “Screening of medicinal plants from Trinidad and Tobago for antimicrobial and insecticidal properties.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1999; 64(3): 265-70.

Ajos Sacha (Mansoa alliacea)
Ajos sacha has been reported with antimicrobial actions against fungi, plant viruses, and bacteria. This plant has also been widely used in the Amazon for colds and flu.
Rana, B. K., et al. "Antifungal activity of an aqueous extract of leaves of garlic creeper (Adenocaymma alliaceum Miers.)." Pharmaceutical Biol. 1999; 37(1):. 13-16.
Singh, U. P., et al. "A rapid method for detecting fungi-toxic substances." World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 1996; 12(3): 301-302.
Khurana, S., et al. "Effect of plant extracts on the activity of three papaya viruses." J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol. 1970; 16: 225-230.
Ushamalini, C., et al. "Management of charcoal rot of cowpea using biocontrol agents and plant products." Indian Phytopathol. 1997; 50(4): 504-507.
Ushamalini, C., et al. "Suppression of charcoal rot and wilt pathogens of cowpea by botanicals." Plant Disease Research 1997; 12(2): 113-117.
Canapaty, S., et al. "Composition of leaf oil from Adenocalymma alliaceum and its antimicrobial activity." Indian Perfumer 2004; 48(3): 323-329.
Rao, A. M., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of the leaf extract of Adenocalymma alliaceum." Indian Drugs. 1985: 22(7): 364-365.

Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia)
Bitter melon's antiviral and antibacterial actions have been reported in numerous studies.
Zhu, F., et al. "Alpha-momorcharin, a RIP produced by bitter melon, enhances defense response in tobacco plants against diverse plant viruses and shows antifungal activity in vitro." Planta. 2012 Sep 16.
Santos, K., et al. "Trypanocide, cytotoxic, and antifungal activities of Momordica charantia. Pharm Biol. 2012 Feb;50(2):162-6.
Feng, E., et al. "Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is a cornucopia of health: a review of its credited antidiabetic, anti-HIV, and antitumor properties." Curr Mol Med. 2011 Jul;11(5):417-36. Review.
Mahomoodally, M., et al. "Screening for alternative antibiotics: an investigation into the antimicrobial activities of medicinal food plants of Mauritius." J Food Sci. 2010 Apr;75(3):M173-7.
Gupta, S., et al. "Momordicatin purified from fruits of Momordica charantia is effective to act as a potent antileishmania agent." Parasitol Int. 2010 Jun;59(2):192-7.
Puri, M., et al. "Ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs) from Momordica charantia for anti viral therapy." Curr. Mol. Med. 2009 Dec; 9(9): 1080-94.
Coutinho, H., et al. "Effect of Momordica charantia L. in the resistance to aminoglycosides in methicilin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus." Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 2009 Sep 2.
Braca, A., et al. "Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Momordica charantia seed essential oil." Fitoterapia. 2008; 79(2): 123-5.
Fan, J., et al. "Inhibition on Hepatitis B virus in vitro of recombinant MAP30 from bitter melon." Mol. Biol. Rep. 2009; 36(2): 381-8.
Vashishta, A., et al. "In vitro refolded napin-like protein of Momordica charantia expressed in Escherichia coli displays properties of native napin." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 2006; 1764(5): 847-55.
Das, P., et al. "Screening of antihelminthic effects of Indian plant extracts: a preliminary report." J. Altern. Complement. Med. 2006 Apr; 12(3): 299-301.
Schmourlo, G., et al. “Screening of antifungal agents using ethanol precipitation and bioautography of medicinal and food plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Jan; 96(3): 563
Jiratchariyakul, W., et al. "HIV inhibitor from Thai bitter gourd." Planta Med. 2001 Jun; 67(4): 350-3.
Zheng, Y. T., et al. “Alpha-momorcharin inhibits HIV-1 replication in acutely but not chronically infected T-lymphocytes.” Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1999; 20(3): 239-43.
Frame, A. D., et al. “Plants from Puerto Rico with anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis properties.” P. R. Health Sci. J. 1998; 17(3): 243–52.
Khan, M. R., et al. “Momordica charantia and Allium sativum: Broad spectrum antibacterial activity.” Korean J. Pharmacog. 1998; 29(3): 155–58.
Bourinbaiar, A. S., et al. “The activity of plant-derived antiretroviral proteins MAP30 and GAP31 against Herpes simplex virus in vitro.” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1996; 219(3): 923–29.
Omoregbe, R. E., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants’ extracts on Escherichia coli,Salmonella paratyphi and Shigella dysenteriae.” Afr. J. Med. Med. Sci. 1996; 25(4): 373–75.
Lee-Huang, S., et al. “Inhibition of the integrase of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 by anti-HIV plant proteins MAP30 and GAP31.” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 1995; 92(19): 8818–22.
Dong, T. X., et al. “Ribosome inactivating protein-like activity in seeds of diverse Cucurbitaceae plants.” Indian J. Exp. Biol. 1993; 25(3): 415–19.
Zhang, Q. C. “Preliminary report on the use of Momordica charantia extract by HIV patients.” J. Naturopath. Med. 1992; 3: 65–9.
Hussain, H. S. N., et al. “Plants in Kano ethomedicine: Screening for antimicrobial activity and alkaloids.” Int. J. Pharmacog. 1991; 29(1): 51–6.
Huang, T. M., et al. “Studies on antiviral activity of the extract of Momordica charantia and its active principle.” Virologica. 1990; 5(4): 367–73.
Lee-Huang, S. “MAP 30: A new inhibitor of HIV-1 infection and replication.” FEBS Lett. 1990; 272(1–2): 12–18.
Takemoto, D. J. “Purification and characterization of a cytostatic factor with anti-viral activity from the bitter melon.” Prep. Biochem. 1983; 13(4): 371–93.
Takemoto, D. J., et al. “Purification and characterization of a cytostatic factor from the bitter melon Momordica charantia.Prep. Biochem. 1982; 12(4): 355-75.



*The statements contained herein have not been evaluated
by the Food and Drug Administration. The information contained herein is intended and provided for education, research, entertainment and information purposes only. This information is not intended to be used to diagnose, prescribe or replace proper medical care. The plants and/or formulas described herein are not intended to treat, cure, diagnose, mitigate or prevent any disease and no medical claims are made.
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