This rainforest formula has not been the subject of any clinical research. A partial listing of third-party published research on each herbal ingredient in the formula is shown below. Please refer to the plant database files by clicking on the plant names below to see all available documentation and research on each plant ingredient.
Sarsaparilla (Smilax sp.)
Sarsaponin, one of sarsaparilla's main steroids, was found to bind to endotoxins in the blood stream and gut and to remove them. This endotoxin-binding action is probably why sarsaparilla has been used for centuries as a "blood purifier." Sarsaparilla also has demonstrated hepatoprotective and neuroprotective effects in rats. The root has been reported to have stimulatory activity on the kidneys in humans and, in chronic nephritis, it was shown to increase the urinary excretion of uric acid. European physicians considered sarsaparilla root a tonic, blood purifier, diuretic, and sweat promoter.
Challinor, V., et al. "Steroidal saponins from the roots of Smilax sp.: structure and bioactivity." Steroids. 2012 Apr;77(5):504-11.
Gao, Y., et al. "Mitochondrial apoptosis contributes to the anti-cancer effect of Smilax glabra Roxb."
Toxicol Lett. 2011 Nov 30;207(2):112-20.
Ni, Y., et al. "Mitochondrial ROS burst as an early sign in sarsasapogenin-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells." Cell Biol Int. 2008 Mar;32(3):337-43.
Zhang, R., et al. "Smilagenin attenuates beta amyloid (25-35)-induced degeneration of neuronal cells via stimulating the gene expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor." Neuroscience. 2012 May 17;210:275-85.
Hu, Y., et al. "Regulation of M1-receptor mRNA stability by smilagenin and its significance in improving memory of aged rats." Neurobiol Aging. 2010 Jun;31(6):1010-9.
Zhang, Y., et al. "Role of glial cell derived neurotrophic factor in the protective effect of smilagenin on rat mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons damaged by MPP+." FEBS Lett. 2008 Mar 19;582(6):956-60.
Chen, L., et al. "Anti-hyperuricemic and nephroprotective effects of Smilax china L." J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 May 17;135(2):399-405.
Chen, L., et al. "Astilbin attenuates hyperuricemia and ameliorates nephropathy in fructose-induced hyperuricemic rats." Planta Med. 2011 Nov;77(16):1769-73.
Li, G., et al. "Effect of astilbin on experimental diabetic nephropathy in vivo and in vitro." Planta Med. 2009 Nov;75(14):1470-5.rheumatism.
Murali, A., et al. "Effect of Smilax zeylanica roots and rhizomes in paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity."
J Complement Integr Med. 2012 Nov 9;9(1).
Iddamaldeniya, S. S., et al. "A long-term investigation of the anti-hepatocarcinogenic potential of an indigenous medicine comprised of Nigella sativa, Hemidesmus indicus and Smilax glabra." J. Carcinog. 2006 May; 5: 11.
Wang, J., et al. “Astilbin prevents concanavalin A-induced liver injury by reducing TNF-alpha production and T lymphocytes adhesion.” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2004; 56(4): 495-502.
Ooi, L., et al. "Antiviral and anti-proliferative glycoproteins from the rhizome of Smilax glabra Roxb (Liliaceae)." Am J Chin Med. 2008;36(1):185-95.
Sautour, M., et al. "Bioactive steroidal saponins from Smilax medica." Planta Med. 2006 Jun; 72(7): 667-70.
Cat's Claw (Uncaria tomentosa)
Cat's claw has long been used to cleanse and detox the bowel and colon. Dr. Brent Davis, D.C. has written several articles on cat's claw and refers to it as the "opener of the way" for its ability to cleanse the entire intestinal tract and its effectiveness in treating stomach and bowel disorders.
Domingues, A., et al. "Prevention of experimental diabetes by Uncaria tomentosa extract: Th2 polarization, regulatory T cell preservation or both?" J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Sep 1;137(1):635-42.
Dreifuss, A., et al. "Antitumoral and antioxidant effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa) (Willd. Ex Roem. & Schult) in an in vivo carcinosarcoma model." J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Jul 6;130(1):127-33
Zhang, L., et al. "Quinic Acid Could Be a Potential Rejuvenating Natural Compound by Improving Survival of Caenorhabditis elegans under Deleterious Conditions." Rejuvenation Res. 2012 Sep 24
Bukowska, B., et al. "Uncaria tomentosa extracts protect human erythrocyte catalase against damage induced by 2,4-D-Na and its metabolites." Food Chem Toxicol. 2012 Jun;50(6):2123-7.
Farias, I., et al. "Uncaria tomentosa stimulates the proliferation of myeloid progenitor cells." J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Sep 1;137(1):856-63.
Guthrie, O., et al. "Carboxy alkyl esters of Uncaria tomentosa augment recovery of sensorineural functions following noise injury." Brain Res. 2011 Aug 17;1407:97-106.
Bors, M., et al. "Protective activity of the Uncaria tomentosa extracts on human erythrocytes in oxidative stress induced by 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and catechol." Food Chem Toxicol. 2011 Sep;49(9):2202-11.
de Fátima, F., et al. "[Uncaria tomentosa and acute ischemic kidney injury in rats]." Rev Esc Enferm USP. 2011 Mar;45(1):194-8
Mammone, T., et al. "A water soluble extract from Uncaria tomentosa (Cat's Claw) is a potent enhancer of DNA repair in primary organ cultures of human skin." Phytother. Res. 2006; 20(3): 178-83.
Kuras, M., et al. "Changes in chromosome structure, mitotic activity and nuclear DNA content from cells of Allium Test induced by bark water extract of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Sep; 107(2):211-21.
Gonzales, G.F., et al. "Medicinal plants from Peru: a review of plants as potential agents against cancer." Anticancer Agents Med. Chem. 2006 Sep; 6(5): 429-44.
De Martino, L., et al. "Proapoptotic effect of Uncaria tomentosa extracts." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Aug; 107(1): 91-4.
Pilarski, R., et al. "Antioxidant activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Mar; 104(1-2): 18-23.
Cisneros, F. J., et al. “An Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw) extract protects mice against ozone-induced lung inflammation.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Jan; 96(3): 355-64.
Artichoke (Cynara scolymus)
Artichoke, with it's documented chologogue and choleretic actions, is used by practitioners to detox and cleanse the liver and gallbladder. In all herbal medicine systems where it is employed, artichoke is used to increase bile production in the liver, increase the flow of bile from the gallbladder, and to increase the contractive power of the bile duct. These bile actions are beneficial in many digestive, gallbladder, and liver disorders. Artichoke is also often used to mobilize fatty stores in the liver and detoxify it, and as a natural aid to lower cholesterol.
Glasl, S., et al. "Choleretic effects of the Mongolian medicinal plant Saussurea amara in the isolated perfused rat liver." Planta Med. 2006 Dec 19;
Benedek, B., et al. "Choleretic effects of yarrow (Achillea millefolium S.L.) in the isolated perfused rat liver." Phytomedicine. 2006 Nov; 13(9-10): 702-6.
Hiner, A. N., et al. “ Kinetic study of the effects of calcium ions on cationic artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) peroxidase: calcium binding, steady-state kinetics and reactions with hydrogen peroxide.” Biochimie. 2004; 86(9-10): 667-76.
Saenz Rodriguez, T., et al. “Choleretic activity and biliary elimination of lipids and bile acids induced by an artichoke leaf extract in rats.” Phytomedicine. 2002 Dec; 9(8): 687-93.
Gebhardt, R. “Anticholestatic activity of flavonoids from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and of their metabolites.” Med. Sci. Monit. 2001; (7) Suppl. 1: 316–20.
Juzyszyn, Z., et al. "The effect of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) extract on respiratory chain system activity in rat liver mitochondria." Phytother Res. 2010 Jun;24 Suppl 2:S123-8.
Huber, R., et al. "Artichoke leave extract for chronic hepatitis C - a pilot study." Phytomedicine. 2009 Sep; 16(9): 801-4.
Tkachenko, E., et al."Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and metabolic syndrome: equality of pathogenetic mechanisms and therapeutic approaches." Eksp. Klin. Gastroenterol. 2008; (2): 92-6.
Mehmetçik, G., et al. "Effect of pretreatment with artichoke extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury and oxidative stress." Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 2008 Sep; 60(6): 475-80.
Miccadei, S.,et al., "Antioxidative and apoptotic properties of polyphenolic extracts from edible part of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) on cultured rat hepatocytes and on human hepatoma cells." Nutr. Cancer. 2008; 60(2): 276-83.
Qiang, Z., et al. "Artichoke extract lowered plasma cholesterol and increased fecal bile acids in Golden Syrian hamsters." Phytother Res. 2012 Jul;26(7):1048-52.
Küskü-Kiraz, Z., et al. "Artichoke leaf extract reduces oxidative stress and lipoprotein dyshomeostasis in rats fed on high cholesterol diet." Phytother Res. 2010 Apr;24(4):565-70.
Küçükgergin, C., et al. "Effect of artichoke leaf extract on hepatic and cardiac oxidative stress in rats fed on high cholesterol diet." Biol Trace Elem Res. 2010 Jun;135(1-3):264-74.
Wider, B., et al. "Artichoke leaf extract for treating hypercholesterolaemia." Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Oct 7;(4):CD003335.
Bundy, R. et al. "Artichoke leaf extract (Cynara scolymus) reduces plasma cholesterol in otherwise healthy hypercholesterolemic adults: a randomized, double blind placebo controlled trial." Phytomedicine. 2008; 15(9): 668-75.
Lupattelli, G., et al. “Artichoke juice improves endothelial function in hyperlipemia.” Life Sci. 2004 Dec; 76(7):775-82.
Boldo (Peumus boldus)
Boldo, and it's main chemical constituent, boldine, has shown to protect the liver, to stimulate the produc-tion of bile in the liver, as well as to stimulate digestion, increase the secretion of gastric juices and stimulate the production of bile and its secretion from the gallbladder in various in vivo and in vitro tests.
Lau, Y., et al. "Boldine protects endothelial function in hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress through an antioxidant mechanism." Biochem Pharmacol. 2012 Nov 22. doi:pii: S0006-2952(12)00751-4.
Sobarzo-Sánchez, E., et al. "Applied biological and physicochemical activity of isoquinoline alkaloids: oxoisoaporphine and boldine." Molecules. 2012 Sep 12;17(9):10958-70.
Falé P., et al. "Acetylcholinesterase inhibition, antioxidant activity and toxicity of Peumus boldus water extracts on HeLa and Caco-2 cell lines." Food Chem Toxicol. 2012 Aug;50(8):2656-62.
Lau, Y., et al. "The aporphine alkaloid boldine improves endothelial function in spontaneously hypertensive rats."
Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2012 Jan 1;237(1):93-8.
Fernández, J. et al. "Effect of boldo (Peumus boldus Molina) infusion on lipoperoxidation induced by cisplatin in mice liver." Phytother Res. 2009; 23(7):1024-7.
Yu, B., et al."The aporphine alkaloid boldine induces adiponectin expression and regulation in 3T3-L1 cells." J. Med. Food. 2009 Oct; 12(5): 1074-83.
Konrath, E., et al. "Antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties of boldine on hippocampal slices exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation in vitro." Neurotoxicology. 2008 Nov; 29(6): 1136-40.
Gotteland, M., et al. “Protective effect of boldine in experimental colitis.” Planta Med. 1997; 63(4): 311–15.
Gotteland, M., et al. “Effect of a dry boldo extract on oro-cecal intestinal transit in healthy volunteers.” Rev. Med. Chil. 1995; 123(8): 955–60.
Lévy-Appert-Collin, M. C., et al. “Galenic preparations from Peumus boldus leaves (Monimiacea).” J. Pharm. Belg. 1977; 32: 13.
Hughes, D. W., et al. “Alkaloids of Peumus boldus. Isolation of laurotetanine and laurolitsine.” J. Pharm. Sci. 1968.
Nettle (Urtica dioica)
Nettle is used in herbal medicine systems to detoxify the kidneys and liver. In the reseach cited below nettle has been documented with liver-protective, kidney-protective and gastro-protective actions.
Sayhan, M., et al. "Protective effect of Urtica dioica L. on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat." J Mol Histol. 2012 Dec;43(6):691-8.
Oguz, S., et al. "Protective effect of Urtica dioica on liver damage induced by biliary obstruction in rats."
Toxicol Ind Health. 2012 May 14. [Epub ahead of print]
Ozkol, H., et al. "Ameliorative influence of Urtica dioica L against cisplatin-induced toxicity in mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma." Drug Chem Toxicol. 2012 Jul;35(3):251-7.
Burkova, V., et al. "[Gastroprotective action of the nettle extract in experimental peptic ulcer]." Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2011;74(1):24-7.
Kandis, H., et al. "Effects of Urtica dioica on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats." Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2010;65(12):1357-61.
Golalipour, M., et al. "Protective role of Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) extract on hepatocytes morphometric changes in STZ diabetic Wistar rats." Turk J Gastroenterol. 2010 Sep;21(3):262-9.
Yener, Z., et al. "Effects of Urtica dioica L. seed on lipid peroxidation, antioxidants and liver pathology in aflatoxin-induced tissue injury in rats." Food Chem Toxicol. 2009 Feb;47(2):418-24.
Toldy, A., et al. "The beneficial effects of nettle supplementation and exercise on brain lesion and memory in rat." J Nutr Biochem. 2009 Dec;20(12):974-81.
Kanter, M., et al. “Hepatoprotective effects of Nigella sativa L and Urtica dioica L on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats.” World J. Gastroenterol. 2005 Nov; 11(42): 6684-8.
Turkdogan, M.K., et al. “The role of Urtica dioica and Nigella sativa in the prevention of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.” Phytother. Res. 2003 Sep; 17(8): 942-6.
Carqueja (Baccharis genistelloides)
Carqueja has demonstrated antihepatotoxic and gastroprotective actions in animal studies. Almost every book published in Brazil on herbal medicine includes carqueja, since it has shown to be so effective for liver and digestive disorders as well as a good detoxifier.
Biondo, T., et al. "Antisecretory actions of Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC aqueous extract and isolated compounds: analysis of underlying mechanisms." J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Jun 22;136(2):368-73.
de Oliveira, C., et al. "Phenolic enriched extract of Baccharis trimera presents anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities." Molecules. 2012 Jan 23;17(1):1113-23.
Nogueira, N., et al."In vitro and in vivo toxicological evaluation of extract and fractions from Baccharis trimera with anti-inflammatory activity." J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Nov 18;138(2):513-22.
Paul, E., et al. "Anti-inflammatory and Immunomodulatory Effects of Baccharis trimera Aqueous Extract on Induced Pleurisy in Rats and Lymphoproliferation In Vitro." Inflammation. 2009 Sep 15.
Samy, R., et al. "Therapeutic Potential of Plants as Anti-microbials for Drug Discovery." Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2010 September; 7(3): 283–294
Betoni, J., et al. "Synergism between plant extract and antimicrobial drugs used on Staphylococcus aureus diseases." Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 2006 Jun; 101(4): 387-90.
Abad, M. J., et al. "Anti-inflammatory activity of four Bolivian Baccharis species (Compositae)." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Feb; 103(3): 338-44.
Simoes-Pires, C. A., et al. "Isolation and on-line identification of antioxidant compounds from three Baccharis species by HPLC-UV-MS/MS with post-column derivatisation." Phytochem. Anal. 2005 Sep-Oct; 16(5): 307-14.
Coelho, M. G., et al. "Anti-arthritic effect and subacute toxicological evaluation of Baccharis genistelloides aqueous extract." Toxicol. Lett. 2004 1; 154(1-2): 69-80.
Melo, S. F., et al. “Effect of the Cymbopogon citratus, Maytenus ilicifolia and Baccharis genistelloides extracts
against the stannous chloride oxidative damage in Escherichia coli.” Mutat. Res. 2001 Sep; 496(1-2): 33-8.
Soicke, H., et al. “Characterisation of flavonoids from Baccharis trimera and their antihepatotoxic properties.” Planta Med. 1987; 53(1): 37–9.
Gonzales, E., et al. “Gastric cytoprotection of Bolivian medicinal plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2000; 70(3): 329–33.
Amor Seco (Desmodium adscendens)
Amor seco is quite popular in herbal medicine throughout South and Central America. In Peruvian herbal medicine today, a leaf tea is used as a blood cleanser and to detoxify the body from environmental toxins and chemicals.
Irié-N'guessan, G., et al. "Tracheal relaxation of five Ivorian anti-asthmatic plants: role of epithelium and K? channels in the effect of the aqueous-alcoholic extract of Dichrostachys cinerea root bark." J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Nov 18;138(2):432-8.
Rastogi, S., et al. "An ethnomedicinal, phytochemical and pharmacological profile of Desmodium gangeticum (L.) DC. and Desmodium adscendens (Sw.) DC." J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Jun 22;136(2):283-96.
Muanda, F., et al. "Chemical Composition and, Cellular Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Desmodium adscendens Leaves." Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011:620862.
Addy, M. E., et al. "Some secondary plant metabolites in Desmodium adscendens and their effects on arachidonic acid metabolism." Prostaglandins Leukotrienes Essent. Fatty Acids 1992; 47(1): 85-91.
Barreto, G. S. “Effect of butanolic fraction of Desmodium adscendens on the anococcygeus of the rat.” Braz. J. Biol. 2002; 62(2): 223–30.
Addy, M. E., et al. “Dose-response effects of Desmodium adscendens aqueous extract on histamine response, content and anaphylactic reactions in the guinea pig.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1996; 18(1): 13–20.
Addy, M. E., et al. “An extract of Desmodium adscendens activates cyclooxygenase and increases prostaglandin synthesis by ram seminal vesicle microsomes.” Phytother. Res. 1995; 9(4): 287–93.
McManus, O. B., et al. "An activator of calcium-dependent potassium channels isolated from a medicinal herb." Biochemistry 1993; 32(24): 6128-33.
N'Gouemo, P., et al. "Effects of an ethanolic extract of Desmodium adscendens on central nervous system in rodents." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1996; 52(2): 77-83.