Amazon Skin-P Support
Amazon
SKIN-P SUPPORT
*

120 capsules (650 mg each)

This product is no longer sold by Raintree Nutrition, Inc. See the main product page for more information why. Try doing a google search or see the rainforest products page to find other companies selling rainforest herbal supplements or rainforest plants if you want to make this rainforest formula yourself.

A synergistic formula of rainforest botanicals that are traditionally used in South America for psoriasis, dermatitis, eczema and other skin conditions.* For more information on the individual ingredients in Amazon Skin-P Support, follow the links provided below to the plant database files in the Tropical Plant Database.

Ingredients: A herbal blend of samambaia, calaguala, pau d'arco, cat's claw, boldo, fedegoso, sarsaparilla, suma, and bitter melon. To prepare this natural remedy yourself: use three parts samambaia, two parts calaguala, and one part each of the remaining plants in the list. To make a small amount... "1 part" could be one tablespoon (you'd have 12 tablespoons of the blended herbal formula). For larger amounts, use "1 part" as one ounce or one cup or one pound. Combine all the herbs together well. The herbal mixture can then be stuffed into capsules or brewed into tea, stirred into juice or other liquid, or taken however you'd like.

Suggested Use: Take 1 to 1.5 grams twice times daily. (1 gram is approximately 1 teaspoon by volume).

Contraindications:
  • Not to be used during pregnancy or while breast-feeding.
  • Do not use in combination with digitalis drugs.
  • Cat's claw has an immunostimulant activity and is contraindicated before or following any organ or bone marrow transplant or skin graft.
Drug Interactions: May potentiate digitalis. Several plants in this formula have been reported to have an liver detoxing effect and therefore may speed the clearance of some drugs from the liver.

Other Practitioner Observations:
  • Several plants in this formula have demonstrated antimicrobial activity in laboratory tests. Long term use may lead to die-off of friendly bacteria in the digestive tract. Supplementation with probiotics and digestive enzymes is advisable when this formula is used for longer than 30 days.
  • Several plants in this formula have been documented to slightly reduce blood pressure in animal studies. Individuals with low blood pressure should be monitored for this possible effect.
  • Bitter melon has been documented to reduce blood sugar levels. Those individuals with hypoglycemia, or those on medications to reduce blood sugar level should be monitored for this possible effect.




Third-Party Published Research*

This rainforest formula has not been the subject of any clinical research. A partial listing of third-party published research on each herbal ingredient in the formula is shown below. Please refer to the plant database files by clicking on the plant names below to see all available documentation and research on each plant ingredient.

Samambaia & Calaguala (Polypodium sp)
Samambaia has demonstrated in human and animal studies to possess some of the specific immune modulating effects needed to treat the imbalances in the immune system that are peculiar to psoriasis, including blocking excess leukotriene production and excess PAF. Additionally, extracts of samambaia have been documented to have a direct anti-inflammatory activity in mice, rats, and humans with psoriasis. In the early 1980s, a company in Spain produced an herbal drug from a water extract of samambaia and named it anapsos. Since that time it has been a prescription drug registered by the Health Ministry of Spain for the treatment of psoriasis. Clinical research also has been published on anapsos since then (including various double-blind placebo human trials) indicating it to be an effective treatment for psoriasis—as well as dermatitis and vitiligo. The most recent rearch details samambaia and calaguala's sunscreen and and skin protective actions.
Navarro-Blasco, F. J., et al. “Modification of the inflammatory activity of psoriatic arthritis in patients treated with extract of Polypodium leucotomos (Anapsos).” Br. J. Rheumatol. 1998; 37(8): 912.
Vasange, M., et al. “A sulphonoglycolipid from the fern Polypodium decumanum and its effect on the platelet activating factor receptor in human neutrophils.” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1997; 49(5): 562–617.
Vasange, M., et al. “Flavonoid constituents of two Polypodium species (Calaguala) and their effect on the elastase release in human neutrophils.” Planta Med. 1997; 63(6): 511–17.
Vasange, M., et al. “The fern Polypodium decumanum, used in the treatment of psoriasis, and its fatty acid constituents as inhibitors of leukotriene B4 formation.” Prostaglandins Leukotrienes Essent. Fatty Acids 1994; 50: 279–284.
Tuominen, M., et al. “Effects of calaguala and an active principle, adenosine, on platelet activating factor.” Planta Med. 1992; 58(4): 306–10.
Jimenez, D., et al. “Anapsos, an antipsoriatic drug, in atopic dermatitis.” Allergol. Immunopathol. 1987; 15(4):185–9.
Jimenez, D., et al. “Anapsos modifies immunological parameters and improves the clinical course in atopic dermatitis.” Dermatologica 1986; 173(3):154–5.
Pineiro Alvarez, B. “2 years personal experience in anapsos treatment of psoriasis in various clinical forms.” Med. Cutan. Ibero. Lat. Am. 1983; 11(1): 65–72.
Vargas, J., et al. “Anapsos, an antipsoriatic drug which increases the proportion of suppressor cells in human peripheral blood.” Ann. Immunol. 1983; 134C(3):393–400.
Del Pino Gamboa, J., et al. “Comparative study between 120 mg. of anapsos and a placebo in 37 psoriasis patients.” Med. Cutan. Ibero. Lat. Am. 1982; 10(3): 203–8.
Capella Perez, M. C., et al. “Double-blind study using ‘anapsos’ 120 mg. in the treatment of psoriasis.” Actas Dermosifiliogr. 1981; 72(9-10): 487-94.
Mercadal Peyri, O., et al. “Preliminary communication on the treatment of psoriasis with anapsos.” Actas Dermosifiliogr. 1981; 72(1–2): 65–8.
Padilla, H. C. “A new agent (hydrophilic fraction of Polypodium leucotomos) for management of psoriasis.” Int. J. Dermatol. 1974; 13(5): 276–82.
Aguilera, P., et al. "Benefits of oral Polypodium Leucotomos extract in MM high-risk patients." J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2012 Jul 31.
Rodríguez-Yanes, E., et al. "Polypodium leucotomos decreases UV-induced epidermal cell proliferation and enhances p53 expression and plasma antioxidant capacity in hairless mice." Exp Dermatol. 2012 Aug;21(8):638-40.
Konda, S., et al. "New horizons in treating disorders of hyperpigmentation in skin of color." Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2012 Jun;31(2):133-9.
Breithaupt, A., et al. "Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus: a case report of Polypodium leucotomos as an adjuvant therapy." Cutis. 2012 Apr;89(4):183-4.
Tanew, A., et al. "Oral administration of a hydrophilic extract of Polypodium leucotomos for the prevention of polymorphic light eruption." J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012 Jan;66(1):58-62.
Gonzales, S., et al. "Fernblock, a nutriceutical with photoprotective properties and potential preventive agent for skin photoaging and photoinduced skin cancers." Int J Mol Sci. 2011; 12(12):8466-75.
Caccialanza, M., et al. "Oral polypodium leucotomos extract photoprotective activity in 57 patients with idiopathic photodermatoses." G Ital Dermatol Venereol. 2011 Apr;146(2):85-7.
Reuter, J., et al. "Which plant for which skin disease? Part 2: Dermatophytes, chronic venous insufficiency, photoprotection, actinic keratoses, vitiligo, hair loss, cosmetic indications." J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2010 Nov;8(11):866-73.
Gonzales, S., et al. "Mechanistic insights in the use of a Polypodium leucotomos extract as an oral and topical photoprotective agent." Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2010 Apr;9(4):559-63.
Villa, A., et al. "Decrease of ultraviolet A light-induced "common deletion" in healthy volunteers after oral Polypodium leucotomos extract supplement in a randomized clinical trial." J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010 Mar;62(3):511-3.
Whitton, M., et al. "Interventions for vitiligo." Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Jan 20;(1):CD003263.
Zattra, E., et al. "Polypodium leucotomos extract decreases UV-induced Cox-2 expression and inflammation, enhances DNA repair, and decreases mutagenesis in hairless mice." Am J Pathol. 2009 Nov;175(5):1952-61.
Phillips, N., et al. "Cancer cell growth and extracellular matrix remodeling mechanism of ascorbate; beneficial modulation by P. leucotomos." Anticancer Res. 2009 Aug;29(8):3233-8.
Phillips, N., et al. "Beneficial regulation of matrixmetalloproteinases and their inhibitors, fibrillar collagens and transforming growth factor-beta by Polypodium leucotomos, directly or in dermal fibroblasts, ultraviolet radiated fibroblasts, and melanoma cells." Arch Dermatol Res. 2009 Aug;301(7):487-95.
Filip, A., et al. "Photochemoprevention of cutaneous neoplasia through natural products." Exp Oncol. 2009 Mar;31(1):9-15.
Bordere, A., et al. "Current and emerging therapy for the management of vitiligo." Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2009 Mar 12;2:15-25.
Mulero, M., et al. "Polypodium leucotomos extract inhibits glutathione oxidation and prevents Langerhans cell depletion induced by UVB/UVA radiation in a hairless rat model." Exp Dermatol. 2008 Aug;17(8):653-8.
Bauman, L., et al. "Less-known botanical cosmeceuticals." Dermatol Ther. 2007 Sep-Oct;20(5):330-42. Review.
Jan'czyk, A., et al. "A Polypodium leucotomos extract inhibits solar-simulated radiation-induced TNF-alpha and iNOS expression, transcriptional activation and apoptosis." Exp Dermatol. 2007 Oct;16(10):823-9.
Gonzales, S., et al. "Polypodium leucotomos extract: a nutraceutical with photoprotective properties." Drugs Today (Barc). 2007 Jul;43(7):475-85. Review.
Luger, T. "[An alternative to creams? Sunscreens to swallow]." MMW Fortschr Med. 2007 Jun 28;149(27-28):8.
Middelkamp-Hup, M., et al. "Treatment of vitiligo vulgaris with narrow-band UVB and oral Polypodium leucotomos extract: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study." J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2007 Aug;21(7):942-50.
Caccialanza, M., et al. "Photoprotective activity of oral polypodium leucotomos extract in 25 patients with idiopathic photodermatoses." Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2007 Feb;23(1):46-7.
Reyes, E., et al. "Systemic immunomodulatory effects of Polypodium leucotomos as an adjuvant to PUVA therapy in generalized vitiligo: A pilot study." J. Dermatol. Sci. 2006; 41(3): 213-6.
Capote, R., et al. "Polypodium leucotomos extract inhibits trans-urocanic acid photoisomerization and photodecomposition." J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 2006; 82(3): 173-9.
Middelkamp-Hup, M. A., et al. “Oral Polypodium leucotomos extract decreases ultraviolet-induced damage of human skin.” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 2004 Dec; 51(6): 910-8.
Middelkamp-Hup, M. A., et al. “Orally administered Polypodium leucotomos extract decreases psoralen-UVA-induced phototoxicity, pigmentation, and damage of human skin.” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 2004; 50(1): 41-9.
Philips, N., et al. “Predominant effects of Polypodium leucotomos on membrane integrity, lipid peroxidation, and expression of elastin and matrixmetalloproteinase-1 in ultraviolet radiation exposed fibroblasts, and keratinocytes.” J. Dermatol. Sci. 2003 Jun; 32(1): 1-9.
Alonso-Lebrero, J. L., et al. “Photoprotective properties of a hydrophilic extract of the fern Polypodium leucotomos on human skin cells.” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 2003 Apr; 70(1): 31-7.
Alcaraz, M. V., et al. “An extract of Polypodium leucotomos appears to minimize certain photoaging changes in a hairless albino mouse animal model. A pilot study.” Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 1999; 15(3–4): 120–26.
Gonzalez, S., et al. “Topical or oral administration with an extract of Polypodium leucotomos prevents acute sunburn and psoralen-induced phototoxic reactions as well as depletion of Langerhans cells in human skin.” Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 1997; 13(1–2): 50–60.
Pathak, M. A., et al. “Polypodium extract as photoprotectant.” U.S. patent no. 5, 614, 197; 1997.
Gonzalez, S., et al. “Inhibition of ultraviolet-induced formation of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, erythema and skin photosensitization by Polypodium leucotomos.” Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed. 1996; 12(2): 45
Mohammad A. “Vitiligo repigmentation with Anapsos (Polypodium leucotomos)." Int. J. Dermatol. 1989; 28(7): 479.

Pau d'arco (Tabebuia impetiginosa)
Pau d'arco contains quinone chemicals including beta-lapachone (and others) which researchers reported: "Because of their potent activity against the growth of human keratinocytes, some lapachol-derived compounds appear to be promising as effective antipsoriatic agents." It has also been documented with immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory actions.
Muller, K., et al. "Potential antipsoriatic agents: lapacho compounds as potent inhibitors of HaCaT cell growth." J. Nat. Prod. 1999; 62(8): 1134-36.
Miranda F. G., et al. “Antinociceptive and antiedematogenic properties and acute toxicity of Tabebuia avellanedae Lor. ex Griseb. inner bark aqueous extract.” BMC Pharmacol. 2001; 1(1): 6.
Xu, J., et al. "Beta-Lapachone ameliorization of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis." J Neuroimmunol. 2012 Sep 22. doi:pii: S0165-5728(12)00277-9.
Bohler, T., et al. "Tabebuia avellanedae extracts inhibit IL-2-independent T-lymphocyte activation and proliferation." Transpl Immunol. 2008 Feb;18(4):319-23.
Lee, M., et al. "Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in animal models of an ethanolic extract of Taheebo, the inner bark of Tabebuia avellanedae." Mol Med Report. 2012 Oct;6(4):791-6
Suo, M., et al. "Anti-inflammatory constituents from Tabebuia avellanedae." Fitoterapia. 2012 Dec;83(8):1484-8.
Byeon, S., et al. "In vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory effects of taheebo, a water extract from the inner bark of Tabebuia avellanedae." J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Sep 2;119(1):145-52.
Awale, S., et al. ”Nitric oxide (NO) production inhibitory constituents of Tabebuia avellanedae from Brazil.” Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2005; 53(6): 710-3.
Lee, J. H., et al. "Down-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 and telomerase activity by beta-lapachone in human prostate carcinoma cells." Pharmacol. Res. 2005; 51(6): 553-60.
de Miranda, F. G., et al. “Antinociceptive and antiedematogenic properties and acute toxicity of Tabebuia avellanedae Lor. ex Griseb. inner bark aqueous extract.” BMC. Pharmacol. 2001; 1(1): 6.
Oga, S., et al. “Toxicidade e atividade anti-inflamatoria de Tabebuia avellanedae Lorentz (‘Ipe Roxo’).” Rev. Fac. Farm. Bioquim. 1969; 7: 4.

Cat's Claw (Uncaria tomentosa)
Cat's claw has been documented in various in vivo and in vitro studies with immunomodulator, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant actions.
Domingues, A., et al. "Prevention of experimental diabetes by Uncaria tomentosa extract: Th2 polarization, regulatory T cell preservation or both?" J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Sep 1;137(1):635-42.
Domingues, A., et al. "Uncaria tomentosa aqueous-ethanol extract triggers an immunomodulation toward a Th2 cytokine profile." Phytother Res. 2011 Aug;25(8):1229-35
Erowele, G., et al. "Pharmacology and therapeutic uses of cat's claw." Am. J. Health Syst. Pharm. 2009 Jun 1; 66(11): 992-5.
Reis, S., et al. "Immunomodulating and antiviral activities of Uncaria tomentosa on human monocytes infected with Dengue Virus-2." Int. Immunopharmacol. 2008; 8(3): 468-76.
Holderness, J., et al. "Select plant tannins induce IL-2Ralpha up-regulation and augment cell division in gammadelta T cells." J. Immunol. 2007 Nov; 179(10): 6468-78.
Groom, S., et al. "The potency of immunomodulatory herbs may be primarily dependent upon macrophage activation." J. Med. Food. 2007 Mar; 10(1): 73-9.
Spelman, K., et al. "Modulation of cytokine expression by traditional medicines: a review of herbal immunomodulators." Altern. Med. Rev. 2006 Jun; 11(2): 128-50.
Eberlin, S., et al. “Uncaria tomentosa extract increases the number of myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow of mice infected with Listeria monocytogenes.” Int. Immunopharmacol. 2005; 5(7-8):1235-46.
Deharo, E., et al. ”In vitro immunomodulatory activity of plants used by the Tacana ethnic group in Bolivia.” Phytomedicine. 2004 Sep; 11(6): 516-22.
Rojas-Duran, R., et al. "Anti-inflammatory activity of Mitraphylline isolated from Uncaria tomentosa bark." J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Oct 11;143(3):801-4.
Allen-Hall, L., et al. "Uncaria tomentosa acts as a potent TNF-alpha inhibitor through NF-kappaB." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Feb 17;127(3):685-93.
Zeng, K., et al. "Synthesis and biological evaluation of quinic acid derivatives as anti-inflammatory agents." Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2009 Sep 15; 19(18): 5458-60.
Erowele, G., et al. "Pharmacology and therapeutic uses of cat's claw." Am. J. Health Syst. Pharm. 2009 Jun 1; 66(11): 992-5.
Amaral, S., et al. "Plant extracts with anti-inflammatory properties--a new approach for characterization of their bioactive compounds and establishment of structure-antioxidant activity relationships." Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2009 Mar; 17(5): 1876-83.
Yuan, D., et al. "Anti-inflammatory effects of rhynchophylline and isorhynchophylline in mouse N9 microglial cells and the molecular mechanism." Int. Immunopharmacol. 2009 Dec; 9(13-14):1549-54.
Pero, R. "Method of preparation and composition of a water soluble extract of the bioactive component of the plant species Uncaria for enhancing immune, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and DNA repair processes of warm blooded animals." United States Patent No. 7,595,064. September 29, 2009

Boldo (Peumus boldus)
Boldo has traditionally been used to detoxify the liver, gallbladder and intestines which most practitioners find helpful in psoriasis and toxic skin conditions.
Kubinova, R., et al. “Chemoprotective activity of boldine: modulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes.” Pharmazie. 2001; 56(3): 242–43.
Jimenez, I., et al. “Biological disposition of boldine: in vitro and in vivo studies.” Phytother. Res. 2000 Jun; 14(4): 254-60.
Jang, Y. Y., et al. “Protective effect of boldine on oxidative mitochondrial damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.” Pharmacol. Res. 2000; 42(4): 361–71.
Bannach, R., et al. “Cytoprotective and antioxidant effects of boldine on tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced damage to isolated hepatocytes.” Cell Biol. Toxicol. 1996 Apr; 12(2): 89-100.
Kringstein, P., et al. “Boldine prevents human liver microsomal lipid peroxidation and inactivation of cytochrome P4502E1.” Free Radic. Biol. Med. 1995; 18(3): 559–63.
Cederbaum, A. I., et al. “Inhibition of rat liver microsomal lipid peroxidation by boldine.” Biochem, Pharmacol. 1992 Nov; 44(9): 1765-72.
Lanhers, M. C., et al. “Hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of a traditional medicinal plant of Chile, Peumus boldus.” Planta Med. 1991; 57(2): 110–15.
Gotteland, M., et al. “Protective effect of boldine in experimental colitis.” Planta Med. 1997; 63(4): 311–15.
Gotteland, M., et al. “Effect of a dry boldo extract on oro-cecal intestinal transit in healthy volunteers.” Rev. Med. Chil. 1995; 123(8): 955–60.
Lévy-Appert-Collin, M. C., et al. “Galenic preparations from Peumus boldus leaves (Monimiacea).” J. Pharm. Belg. 1977; 32: 13.
Hughes, D. W., et al. “Alkaloids of Peumus boldus. Isolation of laurotetanine and laurolitsine.” J. Pharm. Sci. 1968.

Fedegoso (Cassia occidentalis)
Fedegoso leaf extracts have demonstrated anti-inflammatory, hypotensive, smooth-muscle relaxant, antispasmodic, and antioxidant activities in laboratory animals. In vitro testing over the years has reported active antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant actions. It has recently been reported to have actions against vitiligo.
Babitha, S., et al. "A stimulatory effect of Cassia occidentalis on melanoblast differentiation and migration." Arch Dermatol Res. 2011 Apr;303(3):211-6.
Arya, V., et al. "Antioxidant activity of organic and aqueous leaf extracts of Cassia occidentalis L. in relation to their phenolic content." Nat Prod Res. 2011 Sep;25(15):1473-9.
El-Hashash M., et al. "Antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts of the leaves of seven Egyptian Cassia species." Acta Pharm. 2010 Sep;60(3):361-7.
Sreejith, G., et al. "Anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and anti-lipidperoxidant effects of Cassia occidentalis Linn." Indian J Exp Biol. 2010 May;48(5):494-8.
Yadav, J., et al. "Cassia occidentalis L.: a review on its ethnobotany, phytochemical and pharmacological profile." Fitoterapia. 2010 Jun;81(4):223-30.
Sharma, N., et al. “Protective effect of Cassia occidentalis extract on chemical-induced chromosomal aberrations in mice.” Drug Chem. Toxicol. 1999; 22(4): 643–53.

Sarsaparilla (Smilax officinalis)
Sarsaparilla and several of its active plant chemicals haves demonstrated in human studies to be beneficial for psoriasis, eczema, acne, and leprosy. The chemical, sarsaponin (one of sarsaparilla's main steroids), was found to bind to endotoxins in the blood stream and remove them—which was reported to improve psoriasis.
Juhlin, L., et al. “The influence of treatment and fibrin microclot generation in psoriasis.” Br. J. Dermatol. 1983; 108: 33–7.
Rollier, R. “Treatment of lepromatous leprosy by a combination of DDS and sarsaparilla (Smilax ornata)." Int. J. Leprosy 1959; 27: 328–40.
Thurman, F. M. “The treatment of psoriasis with sarsaparilla compound.” New England Journal of Medicine 1942; 337: 128–33.
Ma, D., et al. ”Effect of sarsasapogenin and its derivatives on the stimulus coupled responses of human neutrophils.” Clin. Chim. Acta. 2001 Dec; 314(1-2): 107-12.
Guo, J., et al. "Identification of a new metabolite of astilbin, 3'-O-methylastilbin, and its immunosuppressive activity against contact dermatitis." 2007 Mar;53(3):465-71.
Spelman, K., et al. "Modulation of cytokine expression by traditional medicines: a review of herbal immunomodulators." Altern. Med. Rev. 2006 Jun; 11(2): 128-50.
Shao, B., et al. "Steroidal saponins from Smilax china and their anti-inflammatory activities." Phytochemistry. 2007 Mar;68(5):623-30.
Xia, D., et al. "Protective effect of Smilax glabra extract against lead-induced oxidative stress in rats." J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Jul 20;130(2):414-20.
Chu, K. T., et al. “Smilaxin, a novel protein with immunostimulatory, antiproliferative, and HIV-1-reverse transcriptase inhibitory activities from fresh Smilax glabra rhizomes.” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2005 Dec; 340(1): 118.

Suma (Pfaffia paniculata)
Suma contains a phytosterol called ecdysterone which has been documented to strengthen the water barrier function of the skin and increase skin keratinocyte differentiation. New plant chemicals were identified in suma in 2010 and reported to reverse the over-pigmentation of skin cells. Nakamura, S., et al. "Brazilian natural medicines. IV. New noroleanane-type triterpene and ecdysterone-type sterol glycosides and melanogenesis inhibitors from the roots of Pfaffia glomerata." Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2010 May;58(5):690-5.
Teixeira, C. G., et al. "Involvement of the nitric oxide/soluble guanylate cyclase pathway in the anti-oedematogenic action of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng) Pedersen in mice." J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2006 May; 58(5): 667-75.
Meybeck, A. et al. Use of an ecdysteroid for the preparation of cosmetic or dermatological compositions intended, in particular, for strengthening the water barrier function of the skin or for the preparation of a skin cell culture medium, as well as to the compositions. U.S. patent # 5,609,873. March 11, 1997.
Gao, L., et al. "Beta-ecdysterone induces osteogenic differentiation in mouse mesenchymal stem cells and relieves osteoporosis." Biol Pharm Bull. 2008 Dec;31(12):2245-9.
Mendes, F. R., et al. "Brazilian plants as possible adaptogens: An ethnopharmacological survey of books edited in Brazil." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Feb; 109(3): 493-500.
Pinello, K.C., et al. “Effects of Pfaffia paniculata (Brazilian ginseng) extract on macrophage activity.” Life Sci. 2006 Feb; 78(12): 1287-92.

Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia)
Bitter melon contains a plant chemical which has demonstrated the ability to inhibit the enzyme guanylate cyclase (thought to be linked to the cause of psoriasis and also necessary for the growth of leukemia and cancer cells) in seven research articles.
Takemoto, D. J., et al. "Purification and characterization of a cytostatic factor with anti-viral activity from the bitter melon." Prep Biochem. 1983;13(4):371-93.
Takemoto, D. J., et al. "Purification and characterization of a cytostatic factor with anti-viral activity from the bitter melon. Prep Biochem. 1983;13(5):397-421.
Takemoto, D. J., et al. "Purification and characterization of a cytostatic factor from the bitter melon Momordica charantia." Prep Biochem. 1982;12(4):355-75.
Takemoto, D. J., et al. “Guanylate cyclase activity in human leukemic and normal lymphocytes. Enzyme inhibition and cytotoxicity of plant extracts.” Enzyme. 1982; 27(3): 179–88.
Takemoto, D. J., et al. “Partial purification and characterization of a guanylate cyclase inhibitor with cytotoxic properties from the bitter melon (Momordica charantia).” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1980; 94(1): 332–39.
Claflin, A. J., et al. “Inhibition of growth and guanylate cyclase activity of an undifferentiated prostate adenocarcinoma by an extract of the balsam pear (Momordica charantia abbreviata).” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 1978; 75(2): 989–93.
Vesely, D. L., et al. “Isolation of a guanylate cyclase inhibitor from the balsam pear (Momordica charantia abbreviata).” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1977; 77(4): 1294–99.



*The statements contained herein have not been evaluated
by the Food and Drug Administration. The information contained herein is intended and provided for education, research, entertainment and information purposes only. This information is not intended to be used to diagnose, prescribe or replace proper medical care. The plants and/or formulas described herein are not intended to treat, cure, diagnose, mitigate or prevent any disease and no medical claims are made.
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