Agricultural Research Service - ARS

Dr. Duke's
Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Stachytarpheta cayennensis VAHL (Verbenaceae) -- Verbena


Allergenic; Antiallergic KCH ; Antianaphylactic PJB1(2):266 ; Antibacterial JE26:74 ; Antihistaminic KCH ; Antiseptic 5.2 x phenol W&W ; Antishock KCH ; Barbituate-Synergist PJB1(2):266 ; Bronchorelaxant KCH ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Expectorant KCH ; FLavor FEMA 4-170 ARC ; Fungicide MIC 625 ug/ml; Glaucomagenic JAR10:7 ; Herbicide IC50=115 uM TOX ; Nematicide IC52=100 ug/ml NIG MLC=100-260 ug/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prostatitigenic 185 mg/kg/day/3 ms JAR10:7 ; Sedative ED 1-32 mg/kg W&W ; Teratogenic JNP39:446 ; Trichomonicide LD100=150 ug/ml FT67:279 ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=1.5 mM JAF47:4574

EO Plant 350 - 700 ppm DUKE1992A
No activity reported.

Allergenic; Anthelminthic MAD ; Antibacterial MIC=400 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Anticancer (Pancreas) IC50=265 uM LIP32:151 ; Anticariogenic MIC=400 ug/ml JAF41:1103 ; Antimelanomic IC50=150 uM/l JN127:668 ; Antiseptic 7 x phenol W&W ; Antispasmodic JEO2:185 ; Antitumor JAF43:2144 ; Antitumor (Pancreas) IC50=265 uM LIP32:151 ; Ascaricide MAD ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide DUKE1992B ; CNS-Stimulant HHB ; Embryotoxic DUKE1992B ; Emetic 3 x ipecac LRN-SEP97 ; Expectorant MAD ; FLavor FEMA 1-10 ARC ; Fungicide IC93=2 mM 438 ; Herbicide IC100-2,000 uM TOX ; Insectifuge 50 ppm JSPR22:141.1986 ; Insectiphile M11 ; Nematicide IC86=100 ug/ml NIG MLC=1,000 ug/ml SZ44:183 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative; Trichomonicide LD100=300 ug/ml FT67:279

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 724.6 uM PR7:252 ; Analgesic; Antiarthritic MAD ; Antibacterial MAR ; Antidandruff ALH ; Antidermatotic DUKE1992B ; Antieczemic DUKE1992B ; Antiichthyosic M29 ; Antiinflammatory PHZ46:156 ; Antineuralgic MAD ; Antioncychomycotic M29 ; Antioxidant KCH ; Antiperiodic DUKE1992B ; Antipodagric DUKE1992B ; Antipsoriac DUKE1992B ; Antipyretic DUKE1992B ; Antirheumatic PJB1(2):285 ; Antiseborrheic DUKE1992B ; Antiseptic ALH ; Antitumor PCF:49 ; Antitympanitic M11 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Comedolytic M29 ; COX-2-Inhibitor COX2000 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor PCF:49 ; Dermatitigenic JBH ; Fungicide MIC 1,000 ug/ml FFJ11:257 ; Hypoglycemic EMP6:158 ; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Keratolytic JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Thermogenic 130 ppm SCI237:1601 ; Tineacide M29 ; Ulcerogenic DUKE1992B


438: Lydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp.
525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.
ALH: A.L.L. Hunting. Encyclopedia of Shampoo Ingredients. Micelle Press, Cranford NJ. 467 pp.
ARC: Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry Note: Most ARC numerical data were in mg/dl. I know of no other plant where zinc is more prevalent than other minerals and protein. These data should be viewed as suspect.
COX2000: Newmark, T. M. and Schulick, P. 2000. Herbal Cox-2 Inhibition - Nature's Challenge to Arthritis, Cancer & Alzheimer's Disease. Hohm Press, Prescott AZ.
DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.
DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.
EB48:111: Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.
EMP6:158: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 158.
FFJ11:257: Jim Duke's personal files
FT67:279: Jim Duke's personal files
HHB: List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.
JAF41:1103: Muroi, H. and Kubo, I. 1993. Combination Effects of Antibacterial Compounds in Green Tea Flavor against Streptococcus mutans. J. Agric. Food Chem. 41: 1102-1105.
JAF43:2144: Yu, S.G., Anderson, P.J., and Elson, C.E. 1995. Efficacy of B-Ionone in the Chemoprevention of Rat Mammary Carcinogenesis. J. Agric. Food Chem. 43: 2144-2147.
JAF47:4574: Jim Duke's personal files
JAR10:7: Jim Duke's personal files
JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.
JE26:74: Jim Duke's personal files
JEO2:185: Buchbauer, G., Jirovetz*, L., Nikiforov, A., Remberg, G., Raverdino, V. 1989. Headspace-Analysis and Aroma Compounds of Austrian Hay-Blossoms (Flores Graminis, Graminis Flos) used in Aromatherapy. J. Ess. Oil Res., 2: 185-191, 1990.
JN127:668: Jim Duke's personal files
JNP39:446: Jim Duke's personal files
JSPR22:141.1986: Jim Duke's personal files
KCH: Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.
LIP32:151: Jim Duke's personal files
LRN-SEP97: Lawrence Review of Natural Products, Sep-97.
M11: Merck 11th Edition
M29: Martindale's 29th
MAD: Madaus, G. 1976. Lehrbuch der Biologischen Hilfmittel. Vol,. 1-3. 2862 pp. (+ 144 p. index). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildescheim. Reprint of 1938 Madaus.
MAR: Martindale's 28th
NIG: Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.
PCF:49: Jim Duke's personal files
PHZ46:156: Pharmazie, 46: 156, 1991.
PJB1(2):266: Jim Duke's personal files
PJB1(2):285: Jim Duke's personal files
PR7:252: Toyomizu, M., Sugiyama, S., Jin, R. L., Nakatsu, T. 1993. Alpha-Glucosidase and Aldose Reductase Inhibitors: Constituents of Cashew, Anacardium occidentale, Nut Shell Liquids. Phytotherapy Research, 7(3): 252-254.
SCI237:1601: Jim Duke's personal files
SZ44:183: Shoyakugaku Zasshi, 44: 183.
TOX: Keeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp.
W&W: Wagner & Wolff, eds. 1977. New Natural Products (RS164. I56. 176)

ppm = parts per million
tr = trace

Phytochemical Database, USDA - ARS - NGRL, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, Maryland
Thu May 16 16:25:54 EDT 2002

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James A. Duke (E-Mail:
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