Maca Root Powder - Lepidum meyenii - Maca Root Powder - Lepidum peruvianum - Maca Root Powder - Lepidum meyenii - Maca Root Powder - Lepidum meyenii - Maca Root Powder - Lepidum peruvianum Maca Powder

Lepidium meyenii

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Maca is growing in world popularity due to its energizing, fertility, nutritious, and tonic effects.* For more complete information about this nutritious South American plant, please see the Tropical Plant Database File on Maca. To see pictures of maca being cultivated in the High Andes in Peru, click here. Check out the new Discussion Forums to see if anyone is talking about how they are using this natural remedy.

Traditional Uses:* as a natural source of nutrients (amino acids, minerals, etc.); to support endocrine function; to reduce fertility problems (both male and female); to support erectile function; as an aphrodisiac


Suggested Use: Take one tablespoon (about 10 g) 1-3 times daily or as desired. This powder can be stirred into water, juice, or smoothies—heating or cooking is not required (or recommended). It can be stuffed into capsules, or combined with other herbs or foods.

Contraindications: None reported.
Other Observations: None reported.





Third-Party Published Research*

All available third-party research on maca can be found at PubMed/Medline. A partial listing of the published research on maca is shown below:

Fertility Enhancement Actions:
Clement, C., et al. "Effect of maca supplementation on bovine sperm quantity and quality followed over two spermatogenic cycles." Theriogenology. 2010 Jul 15;74(2):173-83.
Gasco, M., et al. "Effect of chronic treatment with three varieties of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on reproductive parameters and DNA quantification in adult male rats." Andrologia. 2007 Aug;39(4):151-8.
Yucra, S., et al. "Effect of different fractions from hydroalcoholic extract of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on testicular function in adult male rats." Fertil Steril. 2008 May;89(5 Suppl):1461-7.
Gonzales, G. F., et al. "Effect of Black maca (Lepidium meyenii) on one spermatogenic cycle in rats." Andrologia. 2006 Oct; 38(5): 166-72.
Bustos-Obregon, E., et al. "Lepidium meyenii (Maca) reduces spermatogenic damage induced by a single dose of malathion in mice." Asian J. Androl. 2005 Mar; 7(1): 71-6.
Ruiz-Luna, A.C., et al. "Lepidium meyenii (Maca) increases litter size in normal adult female mice." Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol. 2005 May; 3(1): 16.
Gonzales, C., et al. "Effect of short-term and long-term treatments with three ecotypes of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) on spermatogenesis in rats." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Feb 20; 103(3): 448-54.
Gonzales, G. F., et al. "Effect of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on spermatogenesis in male rats acutely exposed to high altitude (4340 m)." J. Endocrinol. 2004; 180(1): 87-95.
Gonzales, G. F., et al. "Lepidium meyenii (maca) improved semen parameters in adult men." Asian J. Androl. 2001; 3(4): 301–3.
Gonzales, G. F., et al. "Effect of Lepidium meyenii (maca) roots on spermatogenesis of male rats." Asian J. Androl. 2001; 3(3): 231–33.

Endocrine / Adrenal Actions:
Zhang, Y., et al. "Effect of ethanol extract of Lepidium meyenii Walp. on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rat." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Apr; 105(1-2): 274-9.
Lopez-Fando, A., et al. “Lepidium peruvianum Chacon restores homeostasis impaired by restraint stress.” Phytother. Res. 2004; 18(6): 471-4.

Anti-Depressant Actions:
Brooks, N., et al. "Beneficial effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on psychological symptoms and measures of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women are not related to estrogen or androgen content." Menopause. 2008 Nov-Dec;15(6):1157-62
Rubio, J., et al. "Effect of three different cultivars of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on learning and depression in ovariectomized mice." BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 2006 Jun 23; 6:23.

Memory Enhancement & Neuroprotective Actions:
Rubio, J., et al. "Dose-response effect of black maca (Lepidium meyenii) in mice with memory impairment induced by ethanol." Toxicol Mech Methods. 2011 Oct;21(8):628-34.
Pino-Figueroa, A., et al. "Neuroprotective effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca)." Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010 Jun;1199:77-85.
Rubio, J., et al. "Aqueous Extract of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on Memory Impairment Induced by Ovariectomy in Mice." Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011:253958.
Rubio, J., et al. "Aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii) improve scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice." Food Chem Toxicol. 2007 Oct;45(10):1882-90.
Rubio, J., et al. "Effect of three different cultivars of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on learning and depression in ovariectomized mice." BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 2006 Jun 23; 6:23.

Anti-Fatigue Actions:
Stone, M., et al. "A pilot investigation into the effect of maca supplementation on physical activity and sexual desire in sportsmen." J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Dec 10;126(3):574-6.

Cholesterol-Lowering Actions:
Vecera, R., et al. "The influence of maca (Lepidium meyenii) on antioxidant status, lipid and glucose metabolism in rat." Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2007 Jun;62(2):59-63.

Male Sexual Performance Enhancement & Anti-BPH Actions:
Gonzales, C., et al. "Effect of red maca (Lepidium meyenii) on prostate zinc levels in rats with testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia." Andrologia. 2012 May;44 Suppl 1:362-9.
Shin, B., et al. "Maca (L. meyenii) for improving sexual function: a systematic review." BMC Complement Altern Med. 2010 Aug 6;10:44.
Stone, M., et al. "A pilot investigation into the effect of maca supplementation on physical activity and sexual desire in sportsmen." J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Dec 10;126(3):574-6.
Zenico, T., et al. "Subjective effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) extract on well-being and sexual performances in patients with mild erectile dysfunction: a randomised, double-blind clinical trial." Andrologia. 2009 Apr;41(2):95-9.
Dording, C., et al. "A double-blind, randomized, pilot dose-finding study of maca root (L. meyenii) for the management of SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction." CNS Neurosci Ther. 2008 Fall;14(3):182-91.
Gonzales, G., et al. "Antagonistic effect of Lepidium meyenii (red maca) on prostatic hyperplasia in adult mice." Andrologia. 2008 Jun;40(3):179-85.
Lentz, A., et al. "Acute and chronic dosing of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on male rat sexual behavior." J Sex Med. 2007 Mar;4(2):332-9;
Gasco, M., et al. "Dose-response effect of Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on benign prostatic hyperplasia induced by testosterone enanthate." Phytomedicine. 2007 Aug;14(7-8):460-4
Cicero, A. F., et al. “Hexanic maca extract improves rat sexual performance more effectively than methanolic and chloroformic maca extracts.” Andrologia. 2002; 34(3): 177–79.
Cicero, A. F., et al. “Lepidium meyenii Walp. improves sexual behaviour in male rats independently from its action on spontaneous locomotor activity.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2001; 75(2–3): 225–29.
Zheng, B. L., et al. “Effect of a lipidic extract from Lepidium meyenii on sexual behavior in mice and rats." Urology 2000; 55(4): 598–602.

Anti-Osteoporosis Actions:
Gonzales, C., et al. "Effects of different varieties of Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on bone structure in ovariectomized rats." Forsch Komplementmed. 2010;17(3):137-43.
Zhang, Y., et al. "Effect of ethanol extract of Lepidium meyenii Walp. on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rat." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Apr; 105(1-2): 274-9.

Hormonal Actions: (Studies showing maca does NOT increase testosterone, estrogen, or progesterone.)
Srikugan, L., et al. "First case report of testosterone assay-interference in a female taking maca (Lepidium meyenii)." BMJ Case Rep. 2011 Mar 25;2011.
Brooks, N., et al. "Beneficial effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on psychological symptoms and measures of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women are not related to estrogen or androgen content." Menopause. 2008 Nov-Dec;15(6):1157-62.
Bogani, P., et al. “Lepidium meyenii (Maca) does not exert direct androgenic activities.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Apr; 104(3): 415-7.
Chung, F., et al. “Dose-response effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) aqueous extract on testicular function and weight of different organs in adult rats.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Apr; 98(1-2): 143-7.
Gonzales, G. F., et al. “Red maca (Lepidium meyenii) reduced prostate size in rats.” Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol. 2005; 3(1): 5.
Gonzales, G. F., et al. “Effect of alcoholic extract of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on testicular function in male rats.” Asian J. Androl. 2003 Dec; 5(4): 349-52.
Gonzales, G. F., et al. “Effect of Lepidium meyenii (maca), a root with aphrodisiac and fertility-enhancing properties, on serum reproductive hormone levels in adult healthy men.” J. Endocrinol. 2003; 176(1): 163–68.
Gonzales, G. F., et al. “Effect of Lepidium meyenii (maca) on sexual desire and its absent relationship with serum testosterone levels in adult healthy men.” Andrologia. 2002; 34(6): 367–72.

Hormonal Actions: (studies showing maca with a slight estrogenic action)
Valentova, K., et al. "The in vitro biological activity of Lepidium meyenii extracts." Cell. Biol. Toxicol. 2006 Mar; 22(2): 91-9.

ACE-Inhibitor Actions:
Ranilla, L., et al. "Phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and in vitro inhibitory potential against key enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia and hypertension of commonly used medicinal plants, herbs and spices in Latin America." Bioresour Technol. 2010 Jun;101(12):4676-89.

Sunscreen Actions:
Gonzales-Castañeda, C., et al. "Hypocotyls of Lepidium meyenii (maca), a plant of the Peruvian highlands, prevent ultraviolet A-, B-, and C-induced skin damage in rats." Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2008 Feb;24(1):24-31.

Toxicity Studies
Valentová, K., et al. "Maca (Lepidium meyenii) and yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) in combination with silymarin as food supplements: in vivo safety assessment." Food Chem Toxicol. 2008 Mar;46(3):1006-13.
Gasco, M., et al. "Effect of chronic treatment with three varieties of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on reproductive parameters and DNA quantification in adult male rats." Andrologia. 2007 Aug;39(4):151-8.



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Last updated 12-17-2012