This product is no longer sold by Raintree Nutrition, Inc. See the main product page for more information why. Try doing a google search or see the rainforest products page to find other companies selling rainforest herbal supplements or rainforest plants if you want to make this rainforest formula yourself.
Quinine bark contains a alkaloid chemical also called quinine which has been turned into a antimalarial drug as well as used as a bitter agent in the manufacture of tonic waters and beverages.* For more information about quinine (Cinchona succirubra), please refer to the Database File for Quinine in the Tropical Plant Database. To see pictures of quinine, click here.
Traditional Uses:* for malaria; as a bitter digestive aid to stimulate digestive juices; for nocturnal leg cramps; for intestinal parasites and protozoa; for arrhythmia and other heart conditions
Suggested Use: This plant is best prepared as a decoction. Use ˝ teaspoon of powder for each cup of water. Bring to a boil and gently boil in a covered pot for 20 minutes. Allow to cool and settle for 10 minutes and strain warm liquid into a cup (leaving the settled powder in the bottom of the pan). It is traditionally taken in ˝ cup dosages, 1-3 times daily. For more complete instructions on preparing herbal decoctions, see the Methods for Preparing Herbal Remedies Page.
Contraindications: Quinine bark contains naturally-occurring quinine alkaloids. These quinine alkaloids are sold as prescription drugs with numerous side effects and warnings documented in the literature. Do not exceed the suggested use shown above unless you are under the care and advice of a qualified health care practitioner who is familiar with the warnings, side effects, and contraindications of higher therapeutic levels of quinine alkaloids.
Drug Interactions: May potentiate blood thinning medications such as WarfarinŽ.
Third-Party Published Research*
All available third-party research on quinine can be found at PubMed. A partial listing of the published research on quinine is shown below:
Anti-Parasitic & Antimalarial Actions:
Anti-Parasitic & Antimalarial Actions:
Willcox, M. "Improved traditional phytomedicines in current use for the clinical treatment of malaria." Planta Med. 2011 Apr;77(6):662-71.
Kumura, N., et al. “Synthesis and biological activity of fatty acid derivatives of quinine.” Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 2005; 69(11): 2250-3.
Bertani, S., et al. “Evaluation of French Guiana traditional antimalarial remedies.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Apr 8; 98(1-2): 45-54.
Kanda, E., et al. “A female patient with malarial nephropathy.” Clin. Exp. Nephrol. 2004 Dec; 8(4): 359-62.
Pukrittayakamee, S., et al. “Quinine pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships in uncomplicated falciparum malaria.” Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2003; 47(11): 3458-63.
Warhurst, D. C., et al. “The relationship of physico-chemical properties and structure to the differential
antiplasmodial activity of the cinchona alkaloids.” Malar. J. 2003 Sep 1; 2: 26.
Pussard, E., et al. “Quinine distribution in mice with Plasmodium berghei malaria.” Eur. J. Drug Metab. Pharmacokinet. 2003 Jan-Mar; 28(1): 11-20.
Vieira, J. L., et al. “Drug monitoring of quinine in men with nonsevere falciparum malaria: study in the Amazon region of Brazil.” Ther. Drug Monit. 2001 Dec; 23(6): 612-5.
Aviado, D. M., et al. "Antimalarial and antiarrhythmic activity of plant extracts." Medicina
Experimentalis—International Journal of Experimental Medicine 1969; 19(20), 79–94.
Bitter Digestive Actions:
Hui, G., et al. "Sweet and bitter tastants specific detection by the taste cell-based sensor." Biosens Bioelectron. 2012 May 15;35(1):429-38.
Zhao, X., et al. "Fos positive neurons in the brain stem and amygdala mostly express vesicular glutamate transporter 3 after bitter taste stimulation." Brain Res. 2012 Mar 22;1445:20-9.
Singh, N., et al. "Functional bitter taste receptors are expressed in brain cells." Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011 Mar 4;406(1):146-51.
Yeomans, M. R. "Olfactory influences on appetite and satiety in humans." Physiol. Behav. 2006 Aug; 89(1): 10-4.
Kozlov, A. P., et al. “Taste differentiation in the context of suckling and independent, adultlike ingestive behavior.”
Dev. Psychobiol. 2006 Mar; 48(2): 133-45.
Dinehart, M. E., et al. “Bitter taste markers explain variability in vegetable sweetness, bitterness, and intake.” Physiol. Behav. 2006; 87(2): 304-13.
Jung, S., et al. "Cinchonine Prevents High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obesity through Downregulation of Adipogenesis and Adipose Inflammation." PPAR Res. 2012;2012:541204.
Woodfield. R., et al. “N-of-1 trials of quinine efficacy in skeletal muscle cramps of the leg.” Br. J. Gen. Pract. 2005 Mar; 55(512): 181-5.
Diener, H. C., et al. "Effectiveness of quinine in treating muscle cramps: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicentre trial." Int. J. Clin. Pract. 2002; 56(4): 243–46.
Man-Son-Hing, M., et al. "Quinine for nocturnal leg cramps: a meta-analysis including unpublished data." J. Gen.
Intern. Med. 1998; 13(9): 600–6.
Skogman, M., et al. "Evaluation of antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities of cinchona alkaloid derivatives against Staphylococcus aureus." Nat Prod Commun. 2012 Sep;7(9):1173-6.
Rojas, J. J., et al. “Screening for antimicrobial activity of ten medicinal plants used in Colombian folkloric medicine: A possible alternative in the treatment of non-nosocomial infections.” BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 2006 Feb 17; 6(1): 2.
Wolf, R., et al. “Quinine sulfate and HSV replication.” Dermatol. Online J. 2003 Aug; 9(3): 3.
Gigout, S., et al. “Effects of gap junction blockers on human neocortical synchronization.” Neurobiol. Dis. 2006 Jun; 22(3): 496-508.
Actions on Insulin Sensitivity:
Rustenbeck, I., et al. "Desensitization of insulin secretion by depolarizing insulin secretagogues." Diabetes. 2004 Dec; 53 Suppl 3: S140-50.
Grosse-Lackmann, T., et al. "Specificity of nonadrenergic imidazoline binding sites in insulin-secreting cells and relation to the block of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels." Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 2003 Dec; 1009: 371-7.
Rustenbeck, I., et al. "Desensitization of insulin secretory response to imidazolines, tolbutamide, and quinine. II. Electrophysiological and fluorimetric studies." Biochem. Pharmacol. 2001 Dec; 62(12): 1695-703.
Rustenbeck, I., et al. "Desensitization of insulin secretory response to imidazolines, tolbutamide, and quinine. I. Secretory and morphological studies." Biochem. Pharmacol. 2001 Dec; 62(12): 1685-94.
Limburg, P.J., et al. "Quinine-induced hypoglycemia." Ann. Intern. Med. 1993 Aug; 119(3): 218-9.
Itoh, K., et al. “Stereospecific oxidation of the (S)-enantiomer of RS-8359, a selective and reversible monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) inhibitor, by aldehyde oxidase.” Xenobiotica. 2005; 35(6): 561-73.
Itoh, K., et al. “Species differences in enantioselective 2-oxidations of RS-8359, a selective and reversible MAO-A inhibitor, and cinchona alkaloids by aldehyde oxidase.” Biopharm. Drug Dispos. 2006 Jan 6;27(3):133-139
Flanagan, K. L., et al. “Quinine levels revisited: the value of routine drug level monitoring for those on parenteral therapy.” Acta. Trop. 2006; 97(2): 233-7.
Osinubi, A. A., “Morphometric and stereological assessment of the effects of long-term administration of quinine on the morphology of rat testis.” West Afr. J. Med. 2005 Jul-Sep; 24(3): 200-5.
Adam, I., et al. “Quinine for chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria in pregnant Sudanese women in the first trimester.” East Mediterr. Health J. 2004 Jul-Sep; 10(4-5): 560-5.
Adam, I., et al. “Low-dose quinine for treatment of chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria in Sudanese pregnant women.” East Mediterr. Health J. 2004 Jul-Sep; 10(4-5): 554-9.
Gopal, K. V., et al. “Unique responses of auditory cortex networks in vitro to low concentrations of quinine.”
Hear. Res. 2004 Jun; 192(1-2): 10-22.
Morrison, L. D., et al. “Death by quinine.” Vet. Hum. Toxicol. 2003 Dec; 45(6): 303-6.
Langford, N. J., et al. “Quinine intoxications reported to the Scottish Poisons Information Bureau 1997-2002: a continuing problem.” Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 2003 Nov; 56(5): 576-8.
* The statements contained herein have not been evaluated
by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is
not intended to treat, cure, mitigate or prevent any disease.
Please refer to our Conditions of Use for this web site and product.
© Copyrighted 1996
to present by Leslie Taylor, Milam County, TX 77857.
All rights reserved. Please read the Conditions of Use, and Copyright Statement
for this web page and web site.
Last updated 12-28-2012