Database entry for: Amargo - Quassia amara Database entry for: Amargo - Quassia amara

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(Quassia amara)

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Amargo - Quassia amara PLANT

Amargo - Quassia amara


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  • Family: Simaroubaceae
    Genus: Quassia
    Species: amara
    Synonyms: Quassia alatifolia, Q. officinalis, Q. amargo, Simaroube officinale
    Common names: amargo, bitter ash, bitterholz, bitterwood, bois amer, bois de quassia, crucete, quassia, cuassia, fliegenholz, guabo, hombre grande, jamaica bark, kashshing, maraubá, marupá, palo muneco, pau amarelo, quassia amarga, quassiawood, ruda, simaruba, simarubabaum, quassiaholz, quassia de cayenne, quassie, quina, simaba, Suriname wood
    Parts Used: wood, leaves

    From The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs:

    Main Actions Other Actions Standard Dosage
  • kills parasites
  • reduces inflammation
  • Wood, Bark
  • kills lice
  • kills cancer cells
  • Infusion: 1 cup 2-3 times daily
  • expels worms
  • kills leukemia cells
  • Capsules: 1-2 g 2-3 times daily
  • kills insects
  • prevents tumors
  • Maceration: 1 cup 2-3 times daily
  • kills larva
  • kills viruses
  • treats malaria
  • dries secretions
  • prevents ulcers
  • cleanses blood
  • stimulates digestion
  • mildly laxative
  • increases bile
  • sedates
  • reduces fever
  • increases saliva

    Amargo is a small tropical tree, growing only 2-6 m in height. It is indigenous to Brazil, Peru, Venezuela, Suriname, Colombia, Argentina, and Guyana. It has beautiful red flowers and fruits that turn red as they mature. Known botanically as Quassia amara, it is marketed and used interchangeably with another tree species, Picrasma excelsa. Sharing the common name of quassia (and many of Quassia amara's constituents and uses), P. excelsa is much taller (up to 25 m in height) and occurs farther north in the tropics of Jamaica, the Caribbean, the Lesser Antilles, and northern Venezuela. In herbal medicine in the United States and Europe, very little distinction is made between the two species of trees; they are used identically and just called quassia. The name amargo means "bitter" in Spanish and describes its very bitter taste.


    In the Amazon rainforest, amargo is used much in the same manner as quinine bark: for malaria and fevers and as a bitter digestive aid. It grows at lower elevations (where quinine does not) and contains many of the same antimalarial phytochemicals (plant chemicals) as quinine. In addition, it is used as an insecticide and tonic, and for hepatitis. Brazilian Indians use the leaves in a bath for measles as well as in a mouthwash used after tooth extractions. Indians in Suriname use the bark for fever and parasites. Throughout South America, amargo is a tribal remedy for debility, digestion problems, fever, liver problems, parasites, malaria, snakebite, and back spasms. In the rainforests of Suriname, carved cups made out of amargo wood can be found in local markets. They are called "bitter cups" and they used medicinally in indigenous Saramaka traditional medicine systems. Drinking from these cups are thought to help digestion with the "bitters" leached from the wood.

    In current Brazilian herbal medicine systems, amargo is considered a tonic, digestion stimulant, blood cleanser, insecticide, and mild laxative. It is recommended for diarrhea, intestinal worms, dysentery, dyspepsia, excessive mucus, expelling worms, intestinal gas, stomachache, anemia, and liver and gastrointestinal disorders. In Peru, amargo is employed as a bitter digestive aid to stimulate gastric and other digestive secretions as well as for fevers, tuberculosis, kidney stones and gallstones. In Mexico, the wood is used for liver and gallbladder diseases and for intestinal parasites. In Nicaragua, amargo is used to expel worms and intestinal parasites as well as for malaria and anemia. Throughout South America, the bitter principles of amargo are used to stimulate the appetite and secretion of digestive juices, as well as to expel worms and intestinal parasites.

    In herbal medicine in the United States and Europe, amargo is employed as a bitter tonic for stomach, gallbladder, and other digestive problems (by increasing the flow of bile, digestive juices, and saliva); as a laxative, amebicide, and insecticide; and to expel intestinal worms. In Europe, it is often found as a component in various herbal drugs that promote gallbladder, liver, and other digestive functions. In Britain, a water extract of the wood is used topically against scabies, fleas, lice, and other skin parasites. U.S. herbalist David Hoffman recommends it as an excellent remedy for dyspeptic conditions, to stimulate production of saliva and digestive juices, and to increase the appetite (as well as for lice infestations and threadworms). He also notes, "It may safely be used in all cases of lack of appetite such as anorexia nervosa and digestive sluggishness."


    Amargo bark contains many active constituents including bitter principles reported to be 50 times more bitter than quinine. While amargo contains many of the same types of antimalarial chemicals as quinine bark, it also contains another chemical called quassin. The large amount of quassin in the bark and wood gives amargo a bitterness rating of 40,000. The bark also contains the phytochemicals quassimarin and simalikalactone D. Quassimarin has demonstrated antileukemic and antitumorous properties in various studies, and simalikalactone D has been documented to have antimalarial, antiviral, antitumor, and anticancer activities. Other quassinoids have demonstrated anti-amebic actions in vivo and in vitro.

    The main chemicals identified in amargo include: beta-carbolines, beta-sitostenone, beta-sitosterol, dehydroquassins, gallic acid, gentisic acid, hydroxyquassins, isoparain, isoparaines, isoquassins, malic acid, methylcanthins, methoxycanthins, methoxycantins, nigakilactone A, neo-quassins, nor-neoquassin, parain, paraines, quassialactol, quassimarin, quassins, quassinol, quassol, and simalikalactone D.


    Several early clinical studies performed on amargo verified its traditional use as a natural insecticide, documenting it as an effective treatment for head lice infestation in humans. One of these studies reported a 99% effectiveness in 454 patients who had only two topical treatments one week apart. In a 1991 double-blind placebo trial on 148 children with head lice, those treated with an amargo bark extract reported fewer new cases, demonstrating a preventative activity against lice. In addition, an amargo water extract has been reported to work quite well against aphids in the garden, and researchers in India have discovered larvicidal activity against several types of insects, including mosquitoes. Since amargo has long been used for malaria in South America, researchers studied this biological effect as well. One study showed strong in vivo antimalarial activity in mice.

    Amargo was reported to have antiviral activity when scientists at Texas Christian University demonstrated in 1996 that a water extract was active in vitro against cells infected with HIV. A 1978 in vivo study reported that amargo wood and/or sap extracts (as well as the isolated chemical quassimarin) inhibited the growth of leukemia in mice. Most recently, in 2002, an extract of the amargo wood was shown to have antiulcerous actions in mice, inhibiting the formation of gastric ulcers (induced by stress and various chemical means). Prior to this study, a U.S. patent was awarded on the quassinoid phytochemicals in amargo, finding them to have "remarkable antiulcer effects with low toxicities." In another in vivo study, amargo was reported to have pain-relieving, muscle-relaxant, and sedative effects in rats and mice.

    Leslie Taylor's 2013 Update on Amargo

    There has been quite a lot of research on Amargo over the last several years since my book text, shown herein, was written. In the first area of research, amargo has been documented with very potent antimalarial actions in several recent studies. This particular research is a great example how research is conducted on a plant and how researchers can get "stuck" concentrating on single chemicals and not the plant itself. Most of this antimalarial research was done by one research group in France studying the herbal remedies used in French Guiana (a rainforest country in South America).

    Their first study in 2005 was a screening program testing various local plant remedies for malaria. They reported that a crude amargo extract demonstrated stronger antimalarial actions than quinine. Since it had the strongest action, they continued their research on this one plant. In their second study published in 2006 they reported again that a crude amargo extract evidenced strong antimalarial actions in the test tube and in animal studies and then attributed this antimalarial action to just one active chemical they tested, simalikalactone D. The next study in 2007 was still testing the crude extracts and reported that an extract with the fresh young leaves of amargo had much better antimalarial effects in test tube studies, but an extract using the dried leaves had a much higher effect in animal studies. They also purported the antimalarial action was still all about the simalikalactone D content in the extract. But then in 2009, they found yet another antimalarial plant chemical in amargo called simalikalactone E and reported it's antimalarial actions. But they were still stuck on that simalikalacton D chemical... and they published another study in 2009 that said: "our experiments demonstrate that both biological activity and cytotoxicity of the remedy may be attributed solely to the presence of SkD." SkD was that ever so wonderful simalikalacton D chemical, which by this time, I'm thinking they are going to attempt to synthesize and patent.

    Unfortunately another research group in India had some research to publish on crude amargo extracts that did not support their work. The following year (in 2010), a research group in India reported that the antimalarial actions of a crude amargo extract was attributed to two other plant chemicals... quassin and neoquassin. They also noted that the crude extract demonstrated stronger antimalarial actions than any of its isolated plant chemicals alone. Of note... in a 2003 study, British researchers had already reported the antimalarial actions of quassin. So, gee... four natural antimalarial plant chemicals found in a crude extract work together synergistically and provide greater biological actions than one chemical can alone. This is not what a pharmaceutical researcher wants to hear! And sure enough... the French researchers published their last study in 2012... this time reporting that their one chemical they loved, simalikalacton D, synergized and enhanced the effect of atovaquone (a leading prescription malaria drug). They didn't mention any of the other natural plant chemicals found in the crude extract.

    What I gleaned from pouring through this research is this: obviously, amargo bark and leaves have several antimalarial chemicals and these chemicals work synergistically together providing better efficacy as a crude extract rather than individual isolated chemicals (that could be patented). This reminds me of a similar story about another rainforest plant; quinine bark and the one quinine alkaloid chemical out of dozens in the crude bark extract that they turned into a antimalarial drug (and ignored all the other synergistic antimalarial chemicals it contained). Such is the world of plant research!

    Amargo has also in the subject of research in other areas besides malaria. In 2012 researchers published a study about the efficacy of a natural herbal combination for the treatment of head lice. The product combined a vinegar extract of amargo which is known to kill the eggs/nits and andiroba oil which they believed asphyxiated the adult lice. Argentinian researchers reported that amargo could be a new, efficient, and safe weapon for the management of rosacea in a study they published in 2012. They prepared a topical gel with 4% amargo extract and reported that it was very effective and worked as well as the results achieved with topical metronidazole and azelaic acid. In Latin America several standardized extracts of amargo are sold. A Costa Rican research group reported in 2011 that two of these standardized extracts were successful in treating stomach ulcers. They related the anti-ulcerous action of the extracts to an increase in gastric barrier mucus and non-protein sulfhydril groups. In 2008 and again in 2011, researchers in Costa Rica confirmed amargo's insect repellent actions and reported that crude water extracts and methanol extracts of amargo was very effective in repelling larva and bugs from eating the leaves of other plants like trees and tomato plants. In seems amargo might be more useful in the garden than for just aphids!

    Researchers from India reported in 2011 that amargo treated diabetic rats as effectively as the standard drug they used (glibenclamide) and summarized their report saying: "The findings of the present study indicate that Quassia amara extract may be potentially valuable in the treatment of diabetes and associated dyslipidemia. The amargo extract was shown to reduce blood sugar levels, reduce cholesterol levels, and increase glucose tolerance. Other researchers in India confirmed amargo's anti-parasitic actions by reporting that quassin, one of Amargo's active chemicals, had highly effective anti-leishmanial actions in their in vitro studies in 2009. Leishamnia is a common tropical disease caused by a parasite. Researchers in Nigeria published several studies. One 2010 study reported amargo has anti-anemic actions by increasing red blood cells (without affecting white bloods cells). In another 2010 in vivo study with rats, they extracted quassin, one of amargo active plant chemicals, and reported that quassin has female anti-fertility properties, possibly acting via the inhibition of estrogen secretion.

    In the U.S., researchers in New York were screening plants for cancer-preventative actions and amargo was among those tested. Amargo, and a chemical found in amargo (gallic acid), was shown to reduce the proliferation of various cancer cells tested in 2011. Previously, in 2009, researchers in the West Indies had reported that two of amargo's active chemicals (quassin and neo-quassin) affected several enzymes that potentiated carcinogens and these chemicals might have a stimulant action on cancer cells. Also in 2009 other researchers in Japan reported that a crude extract of amargo stimulated liver cancer cell growth in rats at very high dosages, but not at lower dosages. In 2009, Japanese researchers studied the two main species of quassia, Quassia amara and Picrasma excelsa. They reported that the same active chemicals were present in both species. This confirmed that these two trees are used interchangeably in various herbal extracts in traditional herbal medicine. They noted most of the commercial extracts sold were probably Quassia amara as the Picrasma species in now on the endangered species list (mostly coming from Jamaica).


    Amargo is still heavily relied upon as a natural remedy in South America for parasites of all kinds. It is slowly catching on here in North American herbal medicine practices for parasites and head lice, but it is predominately used here as a bitter digestive aid and remedy for digestive disorders. Amargo wood is on the FDA's GRAS list (generally regarded as safe). The wood and its main bitter chemical, quassin, also are approved as food additives - and are employed in beverages and baked goods for their bitter taste. Toxicity studies performed on rats and mice reported no toxicity in oral dosages up to 5 g per kg of body weight.

    Main Preparation Method: decoction or capsules

    Main Actions (in order):
    antiparasitic, pediculicide (kills lice), digestive stimulant, bitter digestive aid, liver bile stimulant, antilithic (prevents kidney stones)

    Main Uses:

    1. for lice and skin parasites
    2. for intestinal parasites and amebic infections
    3. for malaria
    4. for digestive problems (ulcers, dyspepsia, intestinal gas and bloating, sluggish digestion, anorexia)
    5. as a liver/gallbladder aid to increase bile and eliminate toxins and stones
    Properties/Actions Documented by Research:
    amebicide, analgesic (pain-reliever), anticancerous, antileukemic, antimalarial, antiparasitic, antitumorous, antiulcerous , antiviral, bitter, gastroprotective, insecticide, larvicide, muscle relaxant, pediculicide (kills lice), sedative

    Other Properties/Actions Documented by Traditional Use:
    antibacterial, antilithic (prevents kidney stones), antispasmodic, antivenin, carminative (expels gas), febrifuge (reduces fever), liver and gallbladder bile stimulant, digestive stimulant, hepatoprotective (liver protector), hepatotonic (tones, balances, strengthens liver functions), hypoglycemic, sialogogue (increases saliva), tonic (tones, balances, strengthens), vermifuge (expels worms)

    Cautions: It interferes with fertility. Large amounts might cause nausea and stomach irritation.

    Traditional Preparation: The traditional remedy as a digestive aid is 1/2 teaspoon of wood powder infused in one cup of boiling water. This is taken 10-15 minutes before or with meals. Alternatively, 1g in tablets or capsules can be taken two or three times daily on an empty stomach for an internal parasite cleanse. Another remedy calls for 2 teaspoons of wood powder or chips to be soaked in 1 cup of cold water overnight (a cold maceration). This is drunk for internal parasites, gallstones, and digestive disorders. This maceration can also be used topically for skin/hair parasites or as a bug spray, especially for aphids on plants and fleas on the dog. For head lice or fleas, prepare a cold maceration (allowing it to macerate/soak for 24 hours). Strain and pour through the hair or apply directly to the skin. It can be washed off in an hour (or simply left on the dog). For lice, repeat every three days for three applications, and for fleas, apply once monthly. Also, a small handful of amargo wood chips can be placed in backyard ponds/fountains (or a few chips in bird baths) to kill mosquito larvae without harming fish or birds.


    • Amargo should not be used during pregnancy.
    • Amargo has been documented to have an antifertility effect in studies with male rats. Men undergoing fertility treatment or those wishing to have children probably should avoid using amargo.
    • Large amounts of amargo can irritate the mucous membrane of the stomach and can lead to nausea and vomiting. Do not exceed recommended dosages.

    Drug Interactions: None reported. However, amargo may interfere with male fertility drugs.

    Brazil for anemia, anorexia, colic, debility, dental pain, diarrhea, digestion disorders, dysentery, dyspepsia, fever, flatulence, gallbladder problems, gallstones, gastrointestinal disorders, gonorrhea, kidney stones, liver problems, malaria, measles, urinary insufficiency, vaginal discharge, and as a bitter digestive stimulant
    Costa Rica for diabetes, diarrhea, fever, worms
    Europe for bile insufficiency, digestive disorders, fleas, gallstones, liver disease, parasites, scabies, threadworms, and as a bitter digestive stimulant
    Guatemala for constipation, diabetes, high blood pressure, nervousness
    Mexico for digestive disorders, gallbladder problems, intestinal parasites, liver disorders, worms, and as a digestive stimulant
    Nicaragua for anemia, bug bites, intestinal parasites, malaria, stings, worms, and as an astringent
    Panama for hyperglycemia, fever, liver disorders, malaria, snakebite
    Peru for cleansing blood, digestive disorders, edema, fever, gallstones, hepatitis, intestinal parasites, kidney stones, stimulating digestion, tuberculosis, worms, and as an insecticide
    for anorexia, cleansing blood, debility, digestive disorders, carcinoma, cirrhosis, constipation, fever, fleas, hyperglycemia, indigestion, leukemia, lice, liver disorders, malaria, parasites, scabies, snakebite, spasms, stimulating digestion, worms, and as a aphidicide and insecticide
    Turkey for diarrhea, digestive difficulty, dysentery, fever, malaria, urinary insufficiency and as an astringent and tonic
    United States. for alcoholism, anorexia, bowel cleansing, convalescence, debility, digestive disorders, fever, gallbladder problems, increasing saliva, intestinal parasites, lice, liver support, spasms, stimulating bile production, stimulating digestion, worms
    Venezuela for constipation, dysentery, fever, worms and as a tonic
    Elsewhere for amebic infections, bacterial infections, cancer, carcinoma, fever, liver disorders, malaria, snakebite, stimulating digestion, tumors, worms, and as an insecticide and tonic

    The above text has been reprinted from The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs, by Leslie Taylor. Published and copyrighted by Square One Publishers Inc., © 2005
    All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, including websites, without written permission.

    † The statements contained herein have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The information contained in this plant database file is intended for education, entertainment and information purposes only. This information is not intended to be used to diagnose, prescribe or replace proper medical care. The plant described herein is not intended to treat, cure, diagnose, mitigate or prevent any disease. Please refer to our Conditions of Use for using this plant database file and web site.

    Referenced Quotes on Amargo

    10. Quassia amara L. Simaroubaceae. "Amargo", "Cuasia", "Bitterwood". Insecticidal, tonic, for fever and hepatitis (RAR). Brazilians use the leaf tea in bathing for measles (BDS), a remedy that sounds a bit better than tea of ashes of dry white dog dung. Brazilians also wash the mouth with leaf tea after tooth extraction. Surinamese "Maroons" use the bark for fever and parasites (MJP). Potent aphidicide (MJP).

    24. "EFFECTS: The amaroid drug (quassinoids) stimulates secretion of gastric juices, increases appetite and aids digestion. It may also have a choleretic effect.
    Homeopathic Uses: Quassia amara is used for gallbladder complaints, as bitter tonic, purgative and as anthelmintic (for ascarid and threadworms).
    Dosage: Quassia Wood is used in homeopathic dilutions and in commercial pharmaceutical preparations. Daily Dosage: 500 mg.

    Third-Party Published Research on Amargo

    All available third-party research on amargo be found at PubMed. A partial listing of the third-party published research on amargo is shown below:

    Antimalarial Actions:
    Bertani, S., et al. "New findings on Simalikalactone D, an antimalarial compound from Quassia amara L. (Simaroubaceae)." Exp Parasitol. 2012 Apr;130(4):341-7. Epub 2012 Feb 21.
    Deharo, E., et al. "Analysis of additivity and synergism in the anti-plasmodial effect of purified compounds from plant extracts" Malar J. 2011; 10(Suppl 1): S5.
    Mishra, K., et al. "Plasmodium falciparum: in vitro interaction of quassin and neo-quassin with artesunate, a hemisuccinate derivative of artemisinin." Exp Parasitol. 2010 Apr;124(4):421-7.
    Mishra, K., et al. "Plasmodium falciparum: In vitro interaction of quassin and neo-quassin with artesunate, a hemisuccinate derivative of artemisinin." Exp. Parasitol. 2009 Dec 29.
    Cachet, N., et al. "Antimalarial activity of simalikalactone E, a new quassinoid from Quassia amara L. (Simaroubaceae)." Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2009 Oct; 53(10): 4393-8.
    Houel, E., et al. "Quassinoid constituents of Quassia amara L. leaf herbal tea. Impact on its antimalarial activity and cytotoxicity." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Oct; 126(1): 114-8.
    Bertani, S., et al. "Quassia amara L. (Simaroubaceae) leaf tea: Effect of the growing stage and desiccation status on the antimalarial activity of a traditional preparation." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Apr 20; 111(1):40-2.
    Botsaris, A. "Plants used traditionally to treat malaria in Brazil: the archives of Flora Medicinal." J Ethnobiol Ethnomedicine. 2007; 3: 18.
    Bertani, S., et al. "Simalikalactone D is responsible for the antimalarial properties of an amazonian traditional remedy made with Quassia amara L. (Simaroubaceae)." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Nov 3;108(1):155-7.
    Vigneron, M., et al. “Antimalarial remedies in French Guiana: a knowledge attitudes and practices study.” J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Apr; 98(3): 351-60.
    Bertani, S., et al. “Evaluation of French Guiana traditional antimalarial remedies.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Apr; 98(1-2): 45-54.
    Ajaiyeoba, E. O., et al. “In vivo antimalarial activities of Quassia amara and Quassia undulata plant extracts in mice.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1999; 67(3): 321–25.
    O’Neill, M. J., et al. “Plants as sources of antimalarial drugs: in vitro antimalarial activities of some quassinoids.” Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1986; 30(1): 101–4.
    Trager, W., et al. “Antimalarial activity of quassinoids against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in vitro.Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1981; 30(3): 531–37.

    Anti-amebic & Anti-parasitic Actions:
    Ninci, M. E. “Prophylaxis and treatment of pediculosis [lice] with Quassia amarga.” Rev. Fac. Cien. Med. Univ. Nac. Cordoba 1991; 49(2): 27–31.
    Wright, C. W., et al. “Use of microdilution to assess in vitro antiamoebic activities of Brucea javanica fruits, Simarouba amara stem, and a number of quassinoids.” Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1988; 32(11): 1725-9
    Jensen, O. “Pediculosis capitis treated with Quassia tincture.” Acta. Derm. Venereol. 1978; 58(6): 557–59.
    Jensen, O. “Treatment of head lice with Quassia tincture.” Ugeskr. Laeger. 1979; 141(4): 225–26.

    Insecticidal & Larvicidal Actions:
    Mac-Mary, S., et al. "Assessment of the efficacy and safety of a new treatment for head lice." ISRN Dermatol. 2012;Oct 2012:460467
    Soto, F., et al. "Phagodeterrence by Quassia amara (Simaroubaceae) wood extract fractions on Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae." Rev Biol Trop. 2011 Mar;59(1):487-99.
    Flores, G., et al. "Antifeedant activity of botanical crude extracts and their fractions on Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) adults: III. Quassia amara (Simaroubaceae)." Rev. Biol. Trop. 2008 Dec; 56(4): 2131-46.
    Evans, D. A., et al. “Larvicidal efficacy of Quassin against Culex quinquefasciatus.” Indian J. Med. Res. 1991 Sep; 93: 324-7.
    Evans, D. A., et al. “Extracts of Indian plants as mosquito larvicides.” Indian J. Med. Res. 1988; 88(1): 38–41.
    Park, M. H., et al. “Acute insecticidal activity of quassin and its congeners against the American cockroach.” Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1987; 35(7): 3082-5.
    Roark, R. C. “Some promising insecticidal plants.” Econ. Bot. 1947; 1: 437–45.

    Anti-fertility Actions:
    Raji, Y., et al. "Reproductive activities of female albino rats treated with quassin, a bioactive triterpenoid from stem bark extract of Quassia amara." Niger J Physiol Sci. 2010 Nov 24;25(2):95-102.
    Parveen, S., et al. “A comprehensive evaluation of the reproductive toxicity of Quassia amara in male rats.” Reprod. Toxicol. 2003; 17(1): 45–50.
    Raji, Y., et al. “Antifertility activity of Quassia amara in male rats - in vivo study.” Life Sci. 1997; 61(11): 1067-74.
    Njar, V. C., et al. “Antifertility activity of Quassia amara: quassin inhibits the steroidogenesis in rat Leydig cells in vitro.” Planta Med. 1995 Apr; 61(2): 180-2.

    Antimicrobial Actions:
    Xu, Z., et al. “Anti-HIV agents 45(1) and antitumor agents 205. (2) Two new sesquiterpenes, leitneridanins A and B, andthe cytotoxic and anti-HIV principles from Leitneria floridana.” J. Nat. Prod. 2000; 63(12): 1712–15.
    Abdel-Malek, S., et al. “Drug leads from the Kallawaya herbalists of Bolivia. 1. Background, rationale, protocol and anti-HIV activity.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1996; 50: 157–66.
    Ajaiyeoba, E.O., et al. “Antibacterial and antifungal activities of Quassia undulata and Quassia amara extracts in vitro.” Afr. J. Med. Med. Sci. 2003 Dec; 32(4): 353-6.
    Apers, S., et al. “Antiviral activity of simalikalactone D, a quassinoid from Quassia africana.” Planta Med. 2002; 25(9): 1151–55.
    Morre, D. J., et al. “Effect of the quassinoids glaucarubolone and simalikalactone D on growth of cells permanently infected with feline and human immunodeficiency viruses and on viral infections.” Life Sci. 1998; 62(3): 213-9.

    Cytotoxic Actions:
    Reynertson, K., et al "Induction of murine embryonic stem cell differentiation by medicinal plant extracts." Exp Cell Res. 2011 Jan 1;317(1):82-93.
    Kupchan, S. M. “Quassimarin, a new antileukemic quassinoid from Quassia amara.” J. Org. Chem. 1976; 41(21):3481–82.

    Antidiabetic Actions:
    Husain, G., et al. "Antidiabetic activity of standardized extract of Quassia amara in nicotinamide-streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats." Phytother Res. 2011 Dec;25(12):1806-12.

    Anti-anemic Actions:
    Raji, Y. "Effects of bioactive principles from stem bark extract of Quassia amara, Quassin and 2-methoxycanthine-6-one, on haematological parameters in albino rats." Niger J Physiol Sci. 2010 Nov 28;25(2):103-6.

    Gastric & Anti-ulcer Actions:
    García-Barrantes, P., et al. "Anti-ulcerogenic properties of Quassia amara L. (Simaroubaceae) standardized extracts in rodent models." J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Apr 12;134(3):904-10.
    Sugimoto, N., et al. “Analysis of constituents in Jamaica quassia extract, a natural bittering agent.” Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. 2003 Dec; 44(6): 328-31.
    Toma, W., et al. “Antiulcerogenic activity of four extracts obtained from the bark wood of Quassia amara L. (Simaroubaceae).” Planta Med. 2002; 68(1): 20–24.
    Garcia Gonzalez, M., et al. “Pharmacologic activity of the aqueous wood extract from Quassia amara (Simarubaceae) on albino rats and mice.” Rev. Biol. Trop. 1997; 44–45: 47–50.
    Tada, H., et al. “Novel anti-ulcer agents and quassinoids.” U.S. patent no. 4,731,459. 1988.

    Anti-inflammatory & Pain-relieving Actions:
    Ferrari, A., et al. "Evaluation of the efficacy and tolerance of a topical gel with 4% quassia extract in the treatment of rosacea." J Clin Pharmacol. 2012 Jan;52(1):84-8.
    Verma, N., et al. "Evaluation of inhibitory activities of plant extracts on production of LPS-stimulated pro-inflammatory mediators in J774 murine macrophages." Mol Cell Biochem. 2010 Mar;336(1-2):127-35.
    Toma, W., et al. “Evaluation of the analgesic and antiedematogenic activities of Quassia amara bark extract.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2003; 85(1): 19–23.

    Chemical Constituents Identified:
    Tada, A., et al. "Examination of original plant of Jamaica quassia extract, a natural bittering agent, based on composition of the constituents." Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. 2009 Feb; 50(1): 16-21.

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