Amazon Athletic Support

120 capsules (650 mg each)

This product is no longer sold by Raintree Nutrition, Inc. See the main product page for more information why. Try doing a google search or see the rainforest products page to find other companies selling rainforest herbal supplements or rainforest plants if you want to make this rainforest formula yourself.

A combination of rainforest plants used in the rainforest and South America to support lean muscle growth, muscle and joint fitness and faster recovery after exercising.* For more information on the individual ingredients in Amazon Digestion Support, follow the links provided below to the plant database files in the Tropical Plant Database. More information can also be found in the Organ-Specific Guide.

Ingredients: A herbal blend of maca, suma, muira puama, sarsaparilla, chuchuhuasi, tayuya, yerba maté, and iporuru. To prepare this natural remedy yourself: use 1 part each of the herbs in the list. To make a small amount... "1 part" could be one tablespoon (you'd have 8 tablespoons of the blended herbal formula). For larger amounts, use "1 part" as one ounce or one cup or one pound. Combine all the herbs together well. The herbal mixture can then be stuffed into capsules or brewed into tea, stirred into juice or other liquid, or taken however you'd like.

Suggested Use: Take 1-2 grams by weight (1 tsp by volume) twice daily or as desired.

Contraindications: None known.

Third-Party Published Research*

This rainforest formula has not been the subject of any clinical research. A partial listing of published research on each herbal ingredient in the formula is shown below. Please refer to the plant database files by clicking on the plant names below to see all available documentation and research.

Maca (Lepidium meyenii)
Maca has demonstrated fertility and libido enhancing actions in laboratory tests. It may well be that maca's beneficial effects for sexual function and fertility can be explained simply by its high concentration of proteins and vital nutrients. Dried maca root contains about 10% protein—mostly derived from amino acids. Amino acids (the building blocks of proteins) are required in the diet to drive many cellular functions in the body—including natural hormone production.
Stone, M., et al. "A pilot investigation into the effect of maca supplementation on physical activity and sexual desire in sportsmen." J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Dec 10;126(3):574-6.
Lopez-Fando, A., et al. “Lepidium peruvianum Chacon restores homeostasis impaired by restraint stress.” Phytother. Res. 2004; 18(6): 471-4.
Cherksey, B. D. "Method of preparing Muira puama extract and its use for decreasing body fat percentage and increasing lean muscle mass." United States Patent No. 5516516, 1996.
Brooks, N., et al. "Beneficial effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on psychological symptoms and measures of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women are not related to estrogen or androgen content." Menopause. 2008 Nov-Dec;15(6):1157-62
Zhang, Y., et al. "Effect of ethanol extract of Lepidium meyenii Walp. on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rat." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Apr; 105(1-2): 274-9.
Rubio, J., et al. "Effect of three different cultivars of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on learning and depression in ovariectomized mice." BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 2006 Jun 23; 6:23.
Clement, C., et al. "Effect of maca supplementation on bovine sperm quantity and quality followed over two spermatogenic cycles." Theriogenology. 2010 Jul 15;74(2):173-83.
Gasco, M., et al. "Effect of chronic treatment with three varieties of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on reproductive parameters and DNA quantification in adult male rats." Andrologia. 2007 Aug;39(4):151-8.
Yucra, S., et al. "Effect of different fractions from hydroalcoholic extract of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on testicular function in adult male rats." Fertil Steril. 2008 May;89(5 Suppl):1461-7.
Gonzales, G. F., et al. "Effect of Black maca (Lepidium meyenii) on one spermatogenic cycle in rats." Andrologia. 2006 Oct; 38(5): 166-72.
Bustos-Obregon, E., et al. "Lepidium meyenii (Maca) reduces spermatogenic damage induced by a single dose of malathion in mice." Asian J. Androl. 2005 Mar; 7(1): 71-6.
Ruiz-Luna, A.C., et al. "Lepidium meyenii (Maca) increases litter size in normal adult female mice." Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol. 2005 May; 3(1): 16.
Gonzales, C., et al. "Effect of short-term and long-term treatments with three ecotypes of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) on spermatogenesis in rats." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Feb 20; 103(3): 448-54.
Gonzales, G. F., et al. "Effect of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on spermatogenesis in male rats acutely exposed to high altitude (4340 m)." J. Endocrinol. 2004; 180(1): 87-95.
Gonzales, G. F., et al. "Lepidium meyenii (maca) improved semen parameters in adult men." Asian J. Androl. 2001; 3(4): 301–3.
Gonzales, G. F., et al. "Effect of Lepidium meyenii (maca) roots on spermatogenesis of male rats." Asian J. Androl. 2001; 3(3): 231–33.

Suma (Pfaffia paniculata)
Suma has been called "the Russian secret," as it has been taken by Russian Olympic athletes for many years and has been reported to increase muscle-building and endurance without the side effects associated with steroids. This action is attributed to an anabolic-type phytochemical called beta-ecdysterone and three novel ecdysteroid glycosides that are found in high amounts in suma. Researchers reported in 2003 that mice fed suma for 30 days had higher levels of the sex hormones estradiol-17beta, progesterone and testosterone than controls.
Oshima, M., et al. “Pfaffia paniculata-induced changes in plasma estradiol-17beta, progesterone and testosterone levels in mice.” J. Reprod. Dev. 2003 Apr; 49(2): 175-80.
Arletti, R., et al. “Stimulating property of Turnera diffusa and Pfaffia paniculata extracts on the sexual behavior of male rats." Psychopharmacology. 1999; 143(1): 15–9.
Matsumoto, I., “Beta-ecdysone from Pfaffia paniculata." Japanese patent no. 82/118,422. January 20, 1984.
de Oliveira, F. G., et al. “Contribution to the pharmacognostic study of Brazilian ginseng Pfaffia paniculata.” An. Farm. Quim. 1980; 20(1–2): 277–361.
Nishimoto, N., et al. “Three ecdysteroid glycosides from Pfaffia." Phytochemistry. 1988; 27(6): 1665–68.
Calgaroto, N., et al. "Antioxidant system activation by mercury in Pfaffia glomerata plantlets." Biometals. 2010 Apr;23(2):295-305.
Gao, L., et al. "Beta-ecdysterone induces osteogenic differentiation in mouse mesenchymal stem cells and relieves osteoporosis." Biol Pharm Bull. 2008 Dec;31(12):2245-9.
Mendes, F. R., et al. "Brazilian plants as possible adaptogens: An ethnopharmacological survey of books edited in Brazil." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Feb; 109(3): 493-500.
Pinello, K.C., et al. “Effects of Pfaffia paniculata (Brazilian ginseng) extract on macrophage activity.” Life Sci. 2006 Feb; 78(12): 1287-92.
Ballas, S. K., et al. “Hydration of sickle erythrocytes using a herbal extract (Pfaffia paniculata) in vitro." Brit. J. Hematol. 2000; 111(1): 359–362.
Araujo, J. T. “Brazilian ginseng derivatives for treatment of sickle cell symptomatology.” US. patent #5,449,516. Sept. 12, 1995.
Freitas, C., et al. "Involvement of glutamate and cytokine pathways on antinociceptive effect of Pfaffia glomerata in mice." J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Apr 21;122(3):468-72.
Teixeira, C. G., et al. "Involvement of the nitric oxide/soluble guanylate cyclase pathway in the anti-oedematogenic action of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng) Pedersen in mice." J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2006 May; 58(5): 667-75.
Neto, A. G., et al. "Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of a crude root extract of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng) Pedersen." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Jan; 96(1-2): 87-91.
Mazzanti, G., et al. “Analgesic and anti-inflammatory action of Pfaffia paniculata (Martius) Kuntze." Phytother. Res. 1994; 8(7): 413-16.
Mazzanti, G., et al. “Anti-inflammatory activity of Pfaffia paniculata (Martius) Kuntze and Pfaffia stenophylla (Sprengel) Stuchl." Pharmacol. Res. 1993; 27(1): 91–92.

Muira Puama (Ptychopetalum olacoides)
Muira puama has evidenced in various laboratory studies to have adaptogenic, analgesic, anti-fatigue, antioxidant, antiulcerous, aphrodisiac, CNS-tonic, hypotensive, memory enhancement, nervine, neur-asthenic, and neuroprotective activities.
Mendes, F. R., et al. "Brazilian plants as possible adaptogens: An ethnopharmacological survey of books edited in Brazil." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Feb; 109(3): 493-500.
Bucci, L. R., et al. ”Selected herbals and human exercise performance.” Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2000 Aug; 72(2 Suppl): 624S-36S.
Paiva, L., et al. “Effects of Ptychocepalum olacoides extract on mouse behaviour in forced swimming and open field tests.” Phytother. Res. 1998; 12(4): 294–96.
Cherksey, B. D. “Method of preparing Muira puama extract and its use for decreasing body fat percentage and increasing lean muscle mass.” United States Patent No. 5516516, 1996.
Waynberg, J. “Male sexual asthenia—interest in a traditional plant-derived medication.” Ethnopharmacology; 1995.
Hanawa, M., et al. “Composition containing an extract from muira puama root and plant worm extract.” Taisho Pharmacuetical Co., Ltd., Tokyo, United States Patent No. 6024984, 2000.
Siqueira, I. R., et al. “Psychopharamcological properties of Ptychopetalum olachoides Bentham (Olacaceae).” Pharmaceutical Biol. 1998; 36(5): 327–34.
Anti-stress effects of the "tonic" Ptychopetalum olacoides (Marapuama) in mice." Phytomedicine. 2010 Mar;17(3-4):248-53.
Piato, A., et al. "Antidepressant profile of Ptychopetalum olacoides Bentham (Marapuama) in mice." Phytother Res. 2009 Apr;23(4):519-24.
Piato, A., et al. "Effects of Marapuama in the chronic mild stress model: further indication of antidepressant properties." J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Jul 23;118(2):300-4.

Sarsaparilla (Smilax officinalis)
Sarsaparilla is a rich source of phytosterols. It (or it's active plant chemicals) have shown in research to have anti-inflammatory and immune modulatory actions.
Liagre, B., et al. "Inhibition of human rheumatoid arthritis synovial cell survival by hecogenin and tigogenin is associated with increased apoptosis, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity and upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2." Int J Mol Med. 2007 Oct;20(4):451-60.
Shao, B., et al. "Steroidal saponins from Smilax china and their anti-inflammatory activities." Phytochemistry. 2007 Mar;68(5):623-30.
Shao, B., et al. "Steroidal saponins from Smilax china and their anti-inflammatory activities." Phytochemistry. 2006 Dec 11;
Shu, X. S., et al. "The anti-inflammation effects of Smilax china ethylacetate extract in rats and mice." Zhongguo. Zhong. Yao. Za. Zhi. 2006 Feb; 31(3): 239-43.
Shu, X. S., et al. "Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of Smilax china L. aqueous extract." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Feb; 103(3): 327-32.
Ji, W., et al. “Effects of Rebixiao granules on blood uric acid in patients with repeatedly attacking acute gouty arthritis.” Chin. J. Integr. Med. 2005 Mar; 11(1): 15-21.
Jiang, J., et al. “Immunomodulatory activity of the aqueous extract from rhizome of Smilax glabra in the later phase of adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2003; 85(1): 53–9.
Ageel, A. M., et al. “Experimental studies on antirheumatic crude drugs used in Saudi traditional medicine.” Drugs Exp. Clin. Res. 1989; 15(8): 369–72.

Chuchuhuasi (Maytenus krokovii)
Chuchuhuasi is regarded as an overall energy tonic and adrenal-builder. It is widely used in South America for muscle and joint aches and pains. In laboratory research chuchuhuasi has evidenced anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, and immune stimulant actions.
Sosa, S., et al. "Anti-inflammatory activity of Maytenus senegalensis root extracts and of maytenoic acid." Phytomedicine. 2007; 14(2-3): 109-14.
Honda, T., et al. “Partial synthesis of krukovines A and B, triterpene ketones isolated from the Brazilian medicinal plant Maytenus krukovii.” J. Nat. Prod. 1997; 60(11): 1174-77.
Morita, H., et al. “Triterpenes from Brazilian medicinal plant “chuchuhuasi” (Maytenus krukovii).” J. Nat. Prod. 1996; 59(11): 1072-75.
Sekar K. V., et al. “Mayteine and 6-benzoyl-6-deacetyl-mayteine from Maytenus krukovii.” Planta Med. 1995; 61: 390.
Bradshaw, D., et al. “Therapeutic potential of protein kinase C inhibitors.” Agents and Actions 1993; 38: 135-47.
Itokawa, H., et al. “Isolation, structural elucidation and conformational analysis of sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloids from Maytenus ebenifolia Reiss. X-ray molecular structure of ebenifoline W-1.” J. Chem. Soc. Perkin. Trans. I 1993; 11: 1247-54.
Itokawa, H., et al. “Oligo-nicotinated sesquiterpene polyesters from Maytenus ilicifolia.” J. Nat. Prod. 1993; 56: 1479-85.
Gonzalez, J. G., et al. “Chuchuhuasha—a drug used in folk medicine in the Amazonian and Andean areas. A chemical study of Maytenus laevis.” J. Ethnopharm. 1982; 5: 73–7
Moya, S., et al. “Phytochemical and pharmacological studies on the antiarthritics of plant origin.” Rev. Colomb. Cienc. Quim. Farm. 1977; 3(2): 5.

Tayuya (Cayaponia tayuya)
Tayuya contains a chemical called cucurbitacin R which has been studied extensively in Russia. There it is cited as a powerful adaptogen, preventing stress-induced alterations in the body. Other research indicates that tayuya has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and analgesic actions.
Panossian, A., et al. “On the mechanism of action of plant adaptogens with particular reference to cucurbitacin R diglucoside.” Phytomedicine. 1999 Jul; 6(3): 147-55.
Panosian, A. G., et al. “Action of adaptogens: cucurbitacin R diglucoside as a stimulator of arachidonic acid metabolism in the rat adrenal gland.” Probl. Endokrinol. 1989 Mar-Apr; 35(2): 70-4.
Panosian, A. G., et al. “Effect of stress and the adaptogen cucurbitacin R diglycoside on arachidonic acid metabolism.” Probl. Endokrinol. 1989 Jan-Feb; 35(1): 58-61.
Panosian, A. G., et al. “Cucurbitacin R glycoside—a regulator of steroidogenesis and of the formation of prostaglandin E2—a specific modulator of the hypothalamus-hypophysis-adrenal cortex system.” Biull. Eksp. Biol. Med. 1987; 104(10): 456-7.
Dadaian, M. A., et al. “Prostaglandin E2 and F2 alpha and 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid levels in the blood of immobilized rats: effect of dihydrocucurbitacin D diglucoside.” Vopr. Med. Khim. 1985 Nov-Dec; 31(6): 98-100.
Escandell, J. M., et al. "Inhibition of delayed-type hypersensitivity by Cucurbitacin R through the curbing of lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine expression by means of nuclear factor AT translocation to the nucleus." J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010 Feb;332(2):352-63.
Aquila, S., et al. "Anti-inflammatory activity of flavonoids from Cayaponia tayuya roots." J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Jan 21;121(2):333-7.
Escandell, J., et al. "Dihydrocucurbitacin B inhibits delayed type hypersensitivity reactions by suppressing lymphocyte proliferation." J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Sep;322(3):1261-8.
Siqueira, J., et al. "Anti-inflammatory effects of a triterpenoid isolated from Wilbrandia ebracteata Cogn." Life Sci. 2007 Mar 20;80(15):1382-7.
Escandell, J. M., et al. "Cucurbitacin R reduces the inflammation and bone damage associated with adjuvant arthritis in Lewis rats by suppression of TNF-{alpha} in T lymphocytes and macrophages." J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 2006 Feb; 532(1-2): 145-54.
Escandell, J. M., et al. “Dihydrocucurbitacin B, isolated from Cayaponia tayuya, reduces damage in adjuvant-induced arthritis.” Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2006 Feb; 532(1-2): 145-54.
Recio, M. C., et al. “Anti-inflammatory activity of two cucurbitacins isolated from Cayaponia tayuya roots.” Planta Med. 2004; 70(5): 414-20.
Himeno, E., et al. “Structures of cayaponosides A, B, C and D, glucosides of new nor-cucurbitacins in the roots of Cayaponia tayuya.” Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Tokyo) 1992; 40(10): 2885–87.
Ruppelt, B. M., et al. “Pharmacological screening of plants recommended by folk medicine as anti-snake venom—I. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities.” Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 1991; 86 (Suppl. 2): 203–5.
Rios, J. L., et al. “A study of the anti-inflammatory activity of Cayaponia tayuya root.” Fitoterapia 1990; 61(3): 275–78.
Faria, M. R. and E. P. Schenkel. “Caracterizacao de cucurbitacinas em especies vegetais cohecidas popularmente como taiuiá.” Ciencia e Cultura (São Paulo) 1987; 39: 970–73.
Bauer, R., et al. “Cucurbitacins and flavone C-glycosides from Cayaponia tayuya.” Phytochemisty. 1984: 1587–91.

Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguariensis)
Yerba mate, which is a source of natural caffeine, has shown in laboratory research to have anti-obesity, thermogenic (fat-burning), and cholesterol-lowering actions in the studies cited below.
Gao, H., et al. "Effects of Yerba Mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) on vascular endothelial function and liver lipoprotein receptor gene expression in hyperlipidemic rats." Fitoterapia. 2012 Dec 21. doi:pii: S0367-326X(12)00351-6.
Resende, P., et al. "The activity of mate saponins (Ilex paraguariensis) in intra-abdominal and epididymal fat, and glucose oxidation in male Wistar rats." J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Dec 18;144(3):735-40.
Pimentel, G., et al. "Yerba mate extract (Ilex paraguariensis) attenuates both central and peripheral inflammatory effects of diet-induced obesity in rats." J Nutr Biochem. 2012 Jul 25.
Boaventura, B., et al. "Association of mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) intake and dietary intervention and effects on oxidative stress biomarkers of dyslipidemic subjects." Nutrition. 2012 Jun;28(6):657-64.
Gosmann, G., et al. "Phenolic compounds from maté (Ilex paraguariensis) inhibit adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes." Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2012 Jun;67(2):156-61.
Kang, Y., et al. "Anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects of Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguariensis) in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet." Lab Anim Res. 2012 Mar;28(1):23-9.
Hussein, G., et al. "Mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) promotes satiety and body weight lowering in mice: involvement of glucagon-like peptide-1." Biol Pharm Bull. 2011;34(12):1849-55.
Klein, G., et al. "Mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) improves glycemic and lipid profiles of type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes individuals: a pilot study." J Am Coll Nutr. 2011 Oct;30(5):320-32.
Huessein, G., et al. "Protective and ameliorative effects of maté (Ilex paraguariensis) on metabolic syndrome in TSOD mice." Phytomedicine. 2011 Dec 15;19(1):88-97.
Silva, R., et al. "The effect of aqueous extract of gross and commercial yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) on intra-abdominal and epididymal fat and glucose levels in male Wistar rats." Fitoterapia. 2011 Sep;82(6):818-26
Arcari, D., et al. "Anti-inflammatory effects of yerba maté extract (Ilex paraguariensis) ameliorate insulin resistance in mice with high fat diet-induced obesity." Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011 Mar 30;335(2):110-5.
Bracesco, N., et al. "Recent advances on Ilex paraguariensis research: minireview." J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Jul 14;136(3):378-84.
de Moralis, E., et al. "Consumption of yerba mate ( Ilex paraguariensis ) improves serum lipid parameters in healthy dyslipidemic subjects and provides an additional LDL-cholesterol reduction in individuals on statin therapy." J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Sep 23;57(18):8316-24.
Martins, F., et al. "Maté tea inhibits in vitro pancreatic lipase activity and has hypolipidemic effect on high-fat diet-induced obese mice." Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010 Jan;18(1):42-7.
Arcari, D., et al. "Antiobesity effects of yerba maté extract (Ilex paraguariensis) in high-fat diet-induced obese mice." Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009 Dec;17(12):2127-33.
Pang, J., et al. "Ilex paraguariensis extract ameliorates obesity induced by high-fat diet: potential role of AMPK in the visceral adipose tissue." Arch Biochem Biophys. 2008 Aug 15;476(2):178-85.
Dickel, M. L., et al. "Plants popularly used for loosing weight purposes in Porto Alegre, South Brazil." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Jan; 109(1): 60-71.
Mosimann, A. L., et al. "Aqueous extract of Ilex paraguariensis attenuates the progression of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits." Biofactors. 2006; 26(1): 59-70.
Pittler, M. H., “Adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction: systematic review.” Obes. Rev. 2005 May; 6(2): 93-111.
Paganini Stein, F. L., et al. “Vascular responses to extractable fractions of Ilex paraguariensis in rats fed standard and high-cholesterol diets.” Biol. Res. Nurs. 2005 Oct; 7(2): 146-56.
Collomp, K., et al. “Effects of salbutamol and caffeine ingestion on exercise metabolism and performance.” Int. J. Sports Med. 2002; 23(8): 549–54.
Anderson, T., et al. “Weight loss and delayed gastric emptying following a South American herbal preparation in overweight patients.” J. Hum. Nutr. Diet. 2001; 14(3): 243–50.
Martinet, A., et al. “Thermogenic effects of commercially available plant preparations aimed at treating human obesity.” Phytomedicine. 1999; 6(4): 231–38.

Iporuru (Alchornea castaneifolia, cordifolia)
Iporuru has shown anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic and pain-relieving actions in the research shown below.
Okoye, F., et al. "Topical anti-inflammatory constituents of lipophilic leaf fractions of Alchornea floribunda and Alchornea cordifolia." Nat Prod Res. 2011 Dec;25(20):1941-9.
Lopes, F., et al. "Anti-inflammatory activity of Alchornea triplinervia ethyl acetate fraction: inhibition of Hv(2)Ov(2), NO and TNF-?." Pharm Biol. 2010 Dec;48(12):1320-7.
Kouakou-Siransy, G., et al. "Effects of Alchornea cordifolia on elastase and superoxide anion produced by human neutrophils." Pharm Biol. 2010 Feb;48(2):128-33. Okoye, F., et al. "Anti-inflammatory and membrane-stabilizing stigmastane steroids from Alchornea floribunda leaves." Planta Med. 2010 Feb;76(2):172-7.
Manga, H., et al. "Anti-inflammatory compounds from leaves and root bark of Alchornea cordifolia (Schumach. & Thonn.) Müll. Arg." J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Jan 4;115(1):25-9.
Manga, H.M., et al. “In vivo anti-inflammatory activity of Alchornea cordifolia (Schumach. & Thonn.) Mull. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae).” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Jun; 92(2-3): 209-14.
Osadebe, P. O., et al. “Anti-inflammatory effects of crude methanolic extract and fractions of Alchornea cordifolia leaves.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2003 Nov; 89(1):19-24.
Tona, L., et al. “Antiamoebic and spasmolytic activities of extracts from some antidiarrhoeal traditional preparations used in Kinshasa, Congo.” Phytomedicine. 2000 Mar; 7(1): 31-8.
Dunstan, C. A., et al. “Evaluation of some Samoan and Peruvian medicinal plants by prostaglandin biosynthesis and rat ear oedema assays.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1997; 57: 35–56.
Ogungbamila, F. O., et al. “Smooth muscle–relaxing flavonoids from Alchornea cordifolia.” Acta Pharm. Nord. 1990; 2(6): 421–22.
Persinos-Perdue, G., et al. “Evaluation of Peruvian folk medicine by the natural products research laboratories.” Abstra. Joint Meeting American Society of Pharmacognosy and Society for Economic Botany, Boston, 1981; (5) 13

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by the Food and Drug Administration. The information contained herein is intended and provided for education, research, entertainment and information purposes only. This information is not intended to be used to diagnose, prescribe or replace proper medical care. The plants and/or formulas described herein are not intended to treat, cure, diagnose, mitigate or prevent any disease and no medical claims are made.
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