This rainforest formula has not been the subject of any clinical research. A partial listing of third-party published research on each herbal ingredient in the formula is shown below. Please refer to the plant database files by clicking on the plant names below to see all available documentation and research on each plant ingredient.
Artichoke (Cynara scolymus)
A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was published in 2000 on artichoke leaf extract. For six weeks, 143 patients with high cholesterol were given artichoke; at the end of the test, results showed a decrease of 10%-15% in total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), and ratio of LDL to HDL cholesterol. Scientists now report that the cholesterol-lowering effect of artichoke can be attributed to chemicals other than just cynarin, including several newly discovered ones. Another human study in 2008 re-confirmed artichoke's cholesterol lowering actions in the about the same decrease.
Qiang, Z., et al. "Artichoke extract lowered plasma cholesterol and increased fecal bile acids in Golden Syrian hamsters." Phytother Res. 2012 Jul;26(7):1048-52.
Küskü-Kiraz, Z., et al. "Artichoke leaf extract reduces oxidative stress and lipoprotein dyshomeostasis in rats fed on high cholesterol diet." Phytother Res. 2010 Apr;24(4):565-70.
Küçükgergin, C., et al. "Effect of artichoke leaf extract on hepatic and cardiac oxidative stress in rats fed on high cholesterol diet." Biol Trace Elem Res. 2010 Jun;135(1-3):264-74.
Wider, B., et al. "Artichoke leaf extract for treating hypercholesterolaemia." Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Oct 7;(4):CD003335.
Bundy, R. et al. "Artichoke leaf extract (Cynara scolymus) reduces plasma cholesterol in otherwise healthy hypercholesterolemic adults: a randomized, double blind placebo controlled trial." Phytomedicine. 2008; 15(9): 668-75.
Lupattelli, G., et al. “Artichoke juice improves endothelial function in hyperlipemia.” Life Sci. 2004 Dec; 76(7):775-82.
Thompson Coon, J. S., et al. “Herbs for serum cholesterol reduction: a systematic view.” J. Fam. Pract. 2003; 52(6): 468-78.
Shimoda, H., et al. “Anti-hyperlipidemic sesquiterpenes and new sesquiterpene glycosides from the leaves of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.): structure requirement and mode of action.” Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2003; 13(2): 223–28.
Gebhardt, R. “Inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis in HepG2 cells by artichoke extracts is reinforced by glucosidase pretreatment.” Phytother. Res. 2002; 16(4): 368–72.
Wegener, T. “The status of herbal antilipemic agents.” Wien. Med. Wochenschr. 2002; 152(15-16): 412-7.
Englisch, W., et al. “Efficacy of artichoke dry extract in patients with hyperlipoproteinemia.” Arzneimittelforschung 2000; 40(3): 260–65.
Gebhardt, R. “Anticholestatic activity of flavonoids from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and of their metabolites.” Med. Sci. Monit. 2001 May; 7 Suppl 1:316-20.
Gebhardt, R. “Inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis in primary cultured rat hepatocytes by artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) extracts.” J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1998; 286(3): 1122–28.
Brown, J. E., et al. “Luteolin-rich artichoke extract protects low density lipoprotein from oxidation in vitro.” Free Radic. Res. 1990; 29(3): 247–55.
Wojcicki, J., et al. “Cynarin and hyperlipidemia” Wiad. Lek. 1977 Oct; 30(19): 1539-41
Pristautz, H., et al. “Cynarin in the modern management of hyperlipemia.” Wien. Med. Wochenschr. 1975; 125(49): 705–9.
Montini, M., et al. “Controlled application of cynarin in the treatment of hyperlipemic syndrome. Observations in 60 cases.” Arzneimittelforschung 1975; 25(8): 1311–14.
Bobnis, W., et al. “Case of primary hyperlipemia treated with cynarin.” Wiad. Lek. 1973; 26(13): 1267–70.
Grogan, J. L., et al. “Potential hypocholesterolemic agents: dicinnamoyl esters as analogs of cynarin.” J. Pharm. Sci. 1972; 61(5): 802–3.
Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia)
Bitter melon has shown to lower cholesterol in many animal studies over the years. In one study, elevated cholesterol and triglyceride levels in diabetic rats were returned to normal after 10 weeks of treatment.
Senanayake, G., et al. "Mechanisms underlying decreased hepatic triacylglycerol and cholesterol by dietary bitter melon extract in the rat." Lipids. 2012 May;47(5):495-503.
Saha, S., et al. "Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of conjugated linolenic acid isomers against streptozotocin-induced diabetes." Br J Nutr. 2012 Sep 28;108(6):974-83
Saha, S., et al. "Comparative study of hypocholesterolemic and hypolipidemic effects of conjugated linolenic acid isomers against induced biochemical perturbations and aberration in erythrocyte membrane fluidity." Eur J Nutr. 2012 Jun;51(4):483-95.
Ching, R. "Supplementation of bitter melon to rats fed a high-fructose diet during gestation and lactation ameliorates fructose-induced dyslipidemia and hepatic oxidative stress in male offspring." J Nutr. 2011
Sato, M., et al. "Dietary kakrol (Momordica dioica Roxb.) flesh inhibits triacylglycerol absorption and lowers the risk for development of fatty liver in rats." Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2011 Oct 1;236(10):1139-46.
Lin, K., et al. "Antioxidant constituents from the stems and fruits of Momordica charantia. Food Chem. 2011 Jul 15;127(2):609-14. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.01.051.
Nerurkar, P., et al. "Momordica charantia (bitter melon) attenuates high-fat diet-associated oxidative stress and neuroinflammation." J Neuroinflammation. 2011 Jun 3;8:64.
Popovich, D., et al. "Momordica charantia seed extract reduces pre-adipocyte viability, affects lactate dehydrogenase release, and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells." J Med Food. 2011 Mar;14(3):201-8.
Kavitha, N., et al. "Influence of Momordica charantia on oxidative stress-induced perturbations in brain monoamines and plasma corticosterone in albino rats." Indian J Pharmacol. 2011 Jul;43(4):424-8.
Chen, C., et al. "Cucurbitane triterpenoids from Momordica charantia and their cytoprotective activity in tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced hepatotoxicity of HepG2 cells." Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2010 Dec;58(12):1639-42.
Chaturvedi, P., et al. "Momordica charantia maintains normal glucose levels and lipid profiles and prevents oxidative stress in diabetic rats subjected to chronic sucrose load." J Med Food. 2010 Jun;13(3):520-7.
Chang, C., et al. "Octanorcucurbitane triterpenoids protect against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced hepatotoxicity from the stems of Momordica charantia." Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2010 Feb;58(2):225-9.
Yama, O., et al. "Effect of methanolic seed extract of Momordica charantia on body weight and serum cholesterol level of male Sprague-Dawley rats." Nig Q J Hosp Med. 2010 Oct-Dec;20(4):209-13.
Chaturvedi, P. "Bitter melon protects against lipid peroxidation caused by immobilization stress in albino rats." Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res. 2009; 79(1): 48-56.
Nerurkar, P., et al. "Lipid lowering effects of Momordica charantia (Bitter Melon) in HIV-1-protease inhibitor-treated human hepatoma cells, HepG2." Br. J. Pharmacol. 2006 Aug; 148(8): 1156-64.
Chan, L. L., et al. “Reduced adiposity in bitter melon (Momordica charantia)-fed rats is associated with increased lipid oxidative enzyme activities and uncoupling protein expression.” J. Nutr. 2005; 135(11): 2517-23.
Chen, Q., et al. “Reduced adiposity in bitter melon (Momordica charantia) fed rats is associated with lower tissue triglyceride and higher plasma catecholamines.” Br. J. Nutr. 2005; 93(5): 747-54.
Hsieh, C. L., et al. “Inhibitory effect of some selected nutraceutic herbs on LDL glycation induced by glucose and glyoxal.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Dec; 102(3): 357-63.
Chaturvedi, P. “Role of Momordica charantia in maintaining the normal levels of lipids and glucose in diabetic rats fed a high-fat and low-carbohydrate diet.” Br. J. Biomed. Sci. 2005; 62(3): 124-6.
Sathishsekar, D., et al. “Antioxidant properties of Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) seeds on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.” Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr. 2005; 14(2): 153-8.
Ansari, N. M., et al. “Antioxidant activity of five vegetables traditionally consumed by South-Asian migrants in Bradford, Yorkshire, UK.” Phytother. Res. 2005; 19(10): 907-11.
Senanayake, G.V. et al. “The effects of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) extracts on serum and liver lipid parameters in hamsters fed cholesterol-free and cholesterol-enriched diets.” J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. 2004 Aug; 50(4): 253-7.
Ahmed, I., et al. “Hypotriglyceridemic and hypocholesterolemic effects of anti-diabetic Momordica charantia (Karela) fruit extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.” Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 2001; 51(3):155–61.
Jayasooriya, A. P., et al. “Effects of Momordica charantia powder on serum glucose levels and various lipid parameters in rats fed with cholesterol-free and cholesterol-enriched diets.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2000; 72 (1–2): 331.
Suma (Pfaffia paniculata)
Suma root has a very high saponin content (up to 11%). In phytochemistry, plant saponins are well known to have a wide spectrum of activities including lowering blood cholesterol, inhibiting cancer cell growth, and acting as antifungal and antibacterial agents. Phytochemists report that saponins can act by binding with bile acids and cholesterol. It is thought that these chemicals "clean" or purge these fatty compounds from the body (thus lowering blood cholesterol levels).
Calgaroto, N., et al. "Antioxidant system activation by mercury in Pfaffia glomerata plantlets." Biometals. 2010 Apr;23(2):295-305.
Gao, L., et al. "Beta-ecdysterone induces osteogenic differentiation in mouse mesenchymal stem cells and relieves osteoporosis." Biol Pharm Bull. 2008 Dec;31(12):2245-9.
Mendes, F. R., et al. "Brazilian plants as possible adaptogens: An ethnopharmacological survey of books edited in Brazil." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Feb; 109(3): 493-500.
Pinello, K.C., et al. “Effects of Pfaffia paniculata (Brazilian ginseng) extract on macrophage activity.” Life Sci. 2006 Feb; 78(12): 1287-92.
Freitas, C. S., et al. "Involvement of nitric oxide in the gastroprotective effects of an aqueous extract of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng) Pedersen, Amaranthaceae, in rats." Life Sci. 2004 Jan; 74(9): 1167-79.
Ballas, S. K., et al. “Hydration of sickle erythrocytes using a herbal extract (Pfaffia paniculata) in vitro." Brit. J. Hematol. 2000; 111(1): 359–362.
Araujo, J. T. “Brazilian ginseng derivatives for treatment of sickle cell symptomatology.” US. patent #5,449,516. Sept. 12, 1995
Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguariensis)
Yerba mate has demonstrated cholesterol lowering, anti-obesity, thermogenic (fat-burning)actions in the studies cited below.
Gao, H., et al. "Effects of Yerba Mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) on vascular endothelial function and liver lipoprotein receptor gene expression in hyperlipidemic rats." Fitoterapia. 2012 Dec 21. doi:pii: S0367-326X(12)00351-6.
Resende, P., et al. "The activity of mate saponins (Ilex paraguariensis) in intra-abdominal and epididymal fat, and glucose oxidation in male Wistar rats." J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Dec 18;144(3):735-40.
Pimentel, G., et al. "Yerba mate extract (Ilex paraguariensis) attenuates both central and peripheral inflammatory effects of diet-induced obesity in rats." J Nutr Biochem. 2012 Jul 25.
Boaventura, B., et al. "Association of mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) intake and dietary intervention and effects on oxidative stress biomarkers of dyslipidemic subjects." Nutrition. 2012 Jun;28(6):657-64.
Gosmann, G., et al. "Phenolic compounds from maté (Ilex paraguariensis) inhibit adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes." Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2012 Jun;67(2):156-61.
Kang, Y., et al. "Anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects of Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguariensis) in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet." Lab Anim Res. 2012 Mar;28(1):23-9.
Hussein, G., et al. "Mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) promotes satiety and body weight lowering in mice: involvement of glucagon-like peptide-1." Biol Pharm Bull. 2011;34(12):1849-55.
Klein, G., et al. "Mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) improves glycemic and lipid profiles of type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes individuals: a pilot study." J Am Coll Nutr. 2011 Oct;30(5):320-32.
Huessein, G., et al. "Protective and ameliorative effects of maté (Ilex paraguariensis) on metabolic syndrome in TSOD mice." Phytomedicine. 2011 Dec 15;19(1):88-97.
Silva, R., et al. "The effect of aqueous extract of gross and commercial yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) on intra-abdominal and epididymal fat and glucose levels in male Wistar rats." Fitoterapia. 2011 Sep;82(6):818-26
Arcari, D., et al. "Anti-inflammatory effects of yerba maté extract (Ilex paraguariensis) ameliorate insulin resistance in mice with high fat diet-induced obesity." Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011 Mar 30;335(2):110-5.
Bracesco, N., et al. "Recent advances on Ilex paraguariensis research: minireview." J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Jul 14;136(3):378-84.
de Moralis, E., et al. "Consumption of yerba mate ( Ilex paraguariensis ) improves serum lipid parameters in healthy dyslipidemic subjects and provides an additional LDL-cholesterol reduction in individuals on statin therapy."
J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Sep 23;57(18):8316-24.
Martins, F., et al. "Maté tea inhibits in vitro pancreatic lipase activity and has hypolipidemic effect on high-fat diet-induced obese mice." Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010 Jan;18(1):42-7.
Arcari, D., et al. "Antiobesity effects of yerba maté extract (Ilex paraguariensis) in high-fat diet-induced obese mice." Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009 Dec;17(12):2127-33.
Pang, J., et al. "Ilex paraguariensis extract ameliorates obesity induced by high-fat diet: potential role of AMPK in the visceral adipose tissue." Arch Biochem Biophys. 2008 Aug 15;476(2):178-85.
Dickel, M. L., et al. "Plants popularly used for loosing weight purposes in Porto Alegre, South Brazil." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Jan; 109(1): 60-71.
Mosimann, A. L., et al. "Aqueous extract of Ilex paraguariensis attenuates the progression of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits." Biofactors. 2006; 26(1): 59-70.
Pittler, M. H., “Adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction: systematic review.” Obes. Rev. 2005 May; 6(2): 93-111.
Paganini Stein, F. L., et al. “Vascular responses to extractable fractions of Ilex paraguariensis in rats fed standard and high-cholesterol diets.” Biol. Res. Nurs. 2005 Oct; 7(2): 146-56.
Collomp, K., et al. “Effects of salbutamol and caffeine ingestion on exercise metabolism and performance.” Int. J. Sports Med. 2002; 23(8): 549–54.
Anderson, T., et al. “Weight loss and delayed gastric emptying following a South American herbal preparation in overweight patients.” J. Hum. Nutr. Diet. 2001; 14(3): 243–50.
Martinet, A., et al. “Thermogenic effects of commercially available plant preparations aimed at treating human obesity.” Phytomedicine. 1999; 6(4): 231–38.
Vassourinha (Scoparia dulcis)
Vassourinha contains several active plant chemicals which are documented with cholesterol lowering, hypotensive and anti-diabetic actions.
Beh, J., et al. "Scoparia dulcis (SDF7) endowed with glucose uptake properties on L6 myotubes compared insulin."
J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 May 4;129(1):23-33.
Latha, M., et al. "Antidiabetic effects of scoparic acid D isolated from Scoparia dulcis in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes." Nat Prod Res. 2009;23(16):1528-40.
Lans, C. A. "Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus." J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomedicine. 2006 Oct; 2: 45.
Pari, L., et al. "Antihyperlipidemic effect of Scoparia dulcis (sweet broomweed) in streptozotocin diabetic rats." J. Med. Food. 2006 Spring; 9(1): 102-7.
Pari, L., et al. “Antidiabetic effect of Scoparia dulcis: effect on lipid peroxidation in streptozotocin diabetes.” Gen. Physiol. Biophys. 2005 Mar; 24(1): 13-26.
Latha, M., et al. “Effect of an aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis on plasma and tissue glycoproteins in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.” Pharmazie. 2005; 60(2): 151-4.
Pari, L., et al. “Effect of Scoparia dulcis (Sweet Broomweed) plant extract on plasma antioxidants in streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetes in male albino Wistar rats.” Pharmazie. 2004; 59(7): 557-60.
Pari, L., et al. “Effect of Scoparia dulcis extract on insulin receptors in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats: studies on insulin binding to erythrocytes.” J. Basic Clin. Physiol. Pharmacol. 2004; 15(3-4): 223-40.
Latha, M., et al. “Scoparia dulcis, a traditional antidiabetic plant, protects against streptozotocin induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in vitro and in vivo.” J. Biochem. Mol. Toxicol. 2004; 18(5): 261-72.
Latha, M., et al. “Insulin-secretagogue activity and cytoprotective role of the traditional antidiabetic plant Scoparia dulcis (Sweet Broomweed).” Life Sci. 2004 Sep; 75(16): 2003-14.
Latha, M., et al. “Effect of an aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis on blood glucose, plasma insulin and some polyol pathway enzymes in experimental rat diabetes.” Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 2004; 37(4): 577-86.
Latha, M., et al. “Modulatory effect of Scoparia dulcis in oxidative stress-induced lipid peroxidation in streptozotocin diabetic rats.” J. Med. Food. 2003 Winter; 6(4): 379-86.
Pari, L., et al. “Hypoglycaemic activity of Scoparia dulcis L. extract in alloxan induced hyperglycaemic rats.”Phytother. Res. 2002 Nov; 16(7): 662-4.
Pata de Vaca (Bauhinia forficata)
In 2004, a research group reported that pata de vaca lowered blood sugar in rats and also reduced tri-glycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol levels in diabetic rats stating, "These results suggest the validity of the clinical use of B. forficata [pata de vaca] in the treatment of Diabetes mellitus type II."
Ferreres, F., et al. "Bauhinia forficata Link authenticity using flavonoids profile: Relation with their biological properties." Food Chem. 2012 Sep 15;134(2):894-904.
Curcio, S., et al. "Hypoglycemic effects of an aqueous extract of Bauhinia forficata on the salivary glands of diabetic mice." Pak J Pharm Sci. 2012 Jul;25(3):493-9.
Trojan-Rodrigues, M., et al. "Plants used as antidiabetics in popular medicine in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil." J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Jan 6;139(1):155-63
Pereira, D., et al. "Effects of flavonoids on alpha-glucosidase activity: potential targets for glucose homeostasis." Nutrition. 2011 Nov-Dec;27(11-12):1161-7.
da Cunha, A., et al. "Hypoglycemic activity of dried extracts of Bauhinia forficata Link." Phytomedicine. 2010 Jan;17(1):37-41.
Tzeng, Y., et al. "Kaempferitrin activates the insulin signaling pathway and stimulates secretion of adiponectin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes." Eur J Pharmacol. 2009 Apr 1;607(1-3):27-34.
Vishnu Prasad, C., et al. "Kaempferitrin inhibits GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes."
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009 Feb 27;380(1):39-43.
Volpato, G., et al. "Effect of Bauhinia forficata aqueous extract on the maternal-fetal outcome and oxidative stress biomarkers of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats." J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Feb 28;116(1):131-7.
Pinheiro, T. S., et al. “Comparative assessment of kaempferitrin from medicinal extracts of Bauhinia forficata “ J. Pharm. Biomed Anal. 2006 May; 41(2):431-6.
Cazarolli, L., et al. "Follow-up studies on glycosylated flavonoids and their complexes with vanadium: their anti-hyperglycemic potential role in diabetes." Chem Biol Interact. 2006 Nov 7;163(3):177-91.
Estrada, O., et al. “Evaluation of flavonoids from Bauhinia megalandra leaves as inhibitors of glucose-6- phosphatase system.” Phytother. Res. 2005; 19(10): 859-63.
Vasconcelos, F., et al. “Insulin-like effects of Bauhinia forficata aqueous extract upon Tityus serrulatus scorpion envenoming.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Dec; 95(2-3): 385-92.
Jorge, A. P., et al. “Insulinomimetic effects of kaempferitrin on glycaemia and on 14C-glucose uptake in rat soleus muscle.” Chem. Biol. Interact. 2004 Oct; 149(2-3): 89-96
Fuentes, O., et al. “Hypoglycemic activity of Bauhinia candicans in diabetic induced rabbits.” Fitoterapia. 2004 Sep; 75(6): 527-32.
Pepato, M. T., et al. “Evaluation of toxicity after one-months treatment with Bauhinia forficata decoction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.” BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 2004 Jun 8; 4: 7.
de Sousa, E., et al. “Hypoglycemic effect and antioxidant potential of
kaempferol-3,7-O-(alpha)-dirhamnoside from Bauhinia forficata leaves.” J. Nat. Prod. 2004; 67(5): 829-32.
Lino, S., et al. “Antidiabetic activity of Bauhinia forficata extracts in alloxan-diabetic rats.” Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2004; 27(1): 125-7.
Pepato, M. T., et al. “Anti-diabetic activity of Bauhinia forficata decoction in streptozotocin-diabetic rats." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002 July; 81(2): 191–97.
Silva, F. R., et al. “Acute effect of Bauhinia forficata on serum glucose levels in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002; 83(1–2): 33–7.
Lemus, I., et al. “Hypoglycemic activity of four plants used in Chilean popular medicine.” Phytother. Res. 1999; 13(2): 91–4.
Miyake, E. T., et al. “Caracterizacao farmacognostica de pata-de-vaca (Bauhinia fortificata)." Rev. Bras. Farmacogn. 1986; 1(1): 56–68.
Almeida, R., et al. “Levantamento da flora medicinal de uso no tratamento da diabete e alguns resultados experimentais.” VIII Simposio de Plantas Medicinais do Brasil, Manaus-AM, Brazil. September 4–6, 1984, 23.
Costa, O. A. “Estudo farmacoquimico da unha-de-vaca.” Rev. Flora Medicinal 1945; 9(4): 175–89.
Juliani, C. “Hypoglycemic action of bauintrato (Bauhinia forficata preparation) new clinical and experimental study.” J. Clin. 1941; 22: 17.
Juliane, C. “Acao hipoglicemiante de Bauhinia forficata. Novos estudos experimentails.” Rev. Sudam. Endocrin. Immol. Quimiot. 1931; 14: 326–34.
Juliane, C. “Acao hipoglicemiante da unha-de-vaca.” Rev. Med. Pharm. Chim. Phys. 1929; 2(1): 165–69.
Sarsaparilla (Smilax sp)
The majority of sarsaparilla's pharmacological properties and actions have been attributed to novel and known steroids and saponins. The saponins have been reported to facilitate the body's absorption of other drugs and phytochemicals, which accounts for its history of use in herbal formulas as an agent for bioavailability and to enhance the power and effect of other herbs.
Xia, D., et al. "Protective effect of Smilax glabra extract against lead-induced oxidative stress in rats."
J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Jul 20;130(2):414-20.
Ranilla, L., et al. "Phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and in vitro inhibitory potential against key enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia and hypertension of commonly used medicinal plants, herbs and spices in Latin America." Bioresour Technol. 2010 Jun;101(12):4676-89.
Ma, D., et al. ”Effect of sarsasapogenin and its derivatives on the stimulus coupled responses of human neutrophils.” Clin. Chim. Acta. 2001 Dec; 314(1-2): 107-12.
Murali, A., et al. "Effect of Smilax zeylanica roots and rhizomes in paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity."
J Complement Integr Med. 2012 Nov 9;9(1).
Iddamaldeniya, S. S., et al. "A long-term investigation of the anti-hepatocarcinogenic potential of an indigenous medicine comprised of Nigella sativa, Hemidesmus indicus and Smilax glabra." J. Carcinog. 2006 May; 5: 11.
Wang, J., et al. “Astilbin prevents concanavalin A-induced liver injury by reducing TNF-alpha production and T lymphocytes adhesion.” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2004; 56(4): 495-502.
Iddamaldeniya, S. S., et al. “Protection against diethylnitrosoamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis by an indigenous medicine comprised of Nigella sativa, Hemidesmus indicus and Smilax glabra: a preliminary study.” J. Carcinog. 2003
Oct; 2(1): 6.
Chen, T., et al. “A new flavanone isolated from Rhizoma smilacis glabrae and the structural requirements for its derivatives for preventing immunological hepatocyte damage." Planta Med. 1999; 65(1): 56–9.
Rafatullah, S., et al. “Hepatoprotective and safety evaluation studies on sarsaparilla.” Int. J. Pharmacognosy 1991; 29: 296–301.