Amazon C-F Support Amazon
C - F Capsules

120 capsules (650 mg each)

This product is no longer sold by Raintree Nutrition, Inc. See the main product page for more information why. Try doing a google search or see the rainforest products page to find other companies selling rainforest herbal supplements or rainforest plants if you want to make this rainforest formula yourself.

A synergistic formula of 10 rainforest botanicals which have been traditionally used in South America for colds and flu.* For more information on the individual ingredients in Amazon C-F, follow the links provided below to the plant database files in the Tropical Plant Database. More information can also be found in the new Antimicrobial Guide.

Ingredients: A herbal blend of cat's claw, amor seco, fedegoso, pic„o preto, mullaca, clavillia, simarouba, Brazilian peppertree bark, gerv‚o, and bitter melon. To prepare this natural remedy yourself: use three parts picao preto, and 1 part each of the remaining herbs in the list. To make a small amount... "1 part" could be one tablespoon (you'd have 12 tablespoons of the blended herbal formula). For larger amounts, use "1 part" as one ounce or one cup or one pound. Combine all the herbs together well. The herbal mixture can then be stuffed into capsules or brewed into tea, stirred into juice or other liquid, or taken however you'd like.

Suggested Use: Take 2 grams by weight (1 1/2 teaspoons by volume), three times daily.

Contraindications: Not to be used during pregnancy or while breast-feeding.

Drug Interactions: None reported.

Other Practitioner Observations: This formula contains plants that have demonstrated significant antimicrobial properties in laboratory studies.* Supplementing the diet with probiotics and digestive enzymes is advisable when this product is used for longer than 15 days.

Third-Party Published Research*

This rainforest formula has not been the subject of any clinical research. A partial listing of third-party published research on each herbal ingredient in the formula is shown below. Please refer to the plant database files by clicking on the plant names below to see all available documentation and research on each plant ingredient.

Cat's Claw (Uncaria tomentosa)
Herrera, D., et al. "In vitro antimicrobial activity of phytotherapic Uncaria tomentosa against endodontic pathogens." J Oral Sci. 2010 Sep;52(3):473-6.
Chen, X., et al. "Effects of rhynchophylline and isorhynchophylline on nitric oxide and endothelin-1 secretion from RIMECs induced by Listeriolysin o in vitro." Vet. Microbiol. 2009 Nov 26.
Reis, S., et al. "Immunomodulating and antiviral activities of Uncaria tomentosa on human monocytes infected with Dengue Virus-2." Int. Immunopharmacol. 2008; 8(3): 468-76.
Ccahuana-Vasquez, R., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of Uncaria tomentosa against oral human pathogens." Braz. Oral Res. 2007 Jan-Mar; 21(1): 46-50.
Kloucek, P., et al. “Antibacterial screening of some Peruvian medicinal plants used in Calleria District.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Jun; 99(2): 309-12.
Garcia, R., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of isopteropodine.” Z. Naturforsch. 2005; 60(5-6): 385-8.
Aquino, R., et al. “Plant metabolites. Structure and in vitro antiviral activity of quinovic acid glycosides from Uncaria tomentosa and Guettarda platypoda." J. Nat. Prod. 1989; 4(52): 679–85.

Amor Seco (Desmodium adscendens)
Addy, M. E., et al. “Dose-response effects of Desmodium adscendens aqueous extract on histamine response, content and anaphylactic reactions in the guinea pig.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1996; 18(1): 13–20.
Addy, M. E., et al. “Effect of Desmodium adscendens fraction 3 on contractions of respiratory smooth muscle.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1990; 29(3): 325–35.
Addy, M. E., et al. “Effect of Desmodium adscendens fraction F1 (DAFL) on tone and agonist-induced contractions of guinea pig airway smooth muscle.” Phytother. Res. 1989; 3(3): 85–90.
Addy, M. E., et al. “Several chromatographically distinct fractions of Desmodium adscendens inhibit smooth muscle contractions.” Int. J. Crude Drug Res. 1989; 27(2): 81–91.
Addy, M. E., et al. “Effect of Desmodium adscendens fractions on antigen- and arachidonic acid-induced contractions of guinea pig airways.” Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 1987; 66(6): 820–25.
Addy, M. E., et al. “Effects of the extracts of Desmodium adscendens on anaphylaxis.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1984; 11(3): 283–92.

Fedegoso (Cassia occidentalis)
Bhagat, M., et al. "Evaluation of Cassia occidentalis for in vitro cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines and antibacterial activity." Indian J Pharmacol. 2010 Aug;42(4):234-7.
Li, S., et al. "Cycloartane triterpenoids from Cassia occidentalis." Planta Med. 2012 May;78(8):821-7.
Evans CE, et al. “Efficacy of some nupe medicinal plants against Salmonella typhi: an in vitro study.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Apr; 80(1): 21-4.
Samy, R. P., et al. “Antibacterial activity of some folklore medicinal plants used by tribals in Western Ghats of India.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2000; 69(1): 63–71.
Anesini, C., et al. “Screening of plants used in Argentine folk medicine for antimicrobial activity.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1993; 39(2): 119–28.
Caceres, A., et al. “Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. 1. Screening for antimycotic activity of 44 plant extracts.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1991; 31(3): 263–76.
Hussain, H., et al. “Plants in Kano ethomedicine: screening for antimicrobial activity and alkaloids.” Int. J. Pharmacog. 1991; 29(1): 51–6.
Gaind, K. N., et al. “Antibiotic activity of Cassia occidentalis.” Indian J. Pharmacy 1966; 28(9): 248–50.

Picão Preto (Bidens pilosa)
Nakama, S., et al. "Efficacy of Bidens pilosa Extract against Herpes Simplex Virus Infection In Vitro and In Vivo." Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:413453.
Adedapo, A., et al. "Comparison of the nutritive value and biological activities of the acetone, methanol and water extracts of the leaves of Bidens pilosa and Chenopodium album." Acta Pol Pharm. 2011 Jan-Feb;68(1):83-92.
Tobinaga, S., et al. "Isolation and identification of a potent antimalarial and antibacterial polyacetylene from Bidens pilosa." Planta Med. 2009 May;75(6):624-8.
Rojas, J. J., et al. "Screening for antimicrobial activity of ten medicinal plants used in Colombian folkloric medicine: A possible alternative in the treatment of non-nosocomial infections." BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 2006 Feb; 6(1): 2.
Khan, M. R., et al. “Anti-microbial activity of Bidens pilosa, Bischofia javanica, Elmerillia papuana and Sigesbekia orientalis.” Fitoterapia. 2001; 72(6): 662–65.
Chariandy, C. M., et al. “Screening of medicinal plants from Trinidad and Tobago for antimicrobial and insecticidal properties.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1999; 64(3): 265–70.
Rabe, T. “Antibacterial activity of South African plants used for medicinal purposes.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1997; 56(1): 81–7.
van Puyvelde, L., et al. “In vitro inhibition of mycobacteria by Rwandese medicinal plants.” Phytother. Res. 1994; 8(2): 65–9.
Desta, B. “Ethiopian traditional herbal drugs. Part II: Antimicrobial activity of 63 medicinal plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1993; 39(2): 129–39.
Sarg, T. M., et al. “Constituents and biological activity of Bidens pilosa l grown in Egypt.” Acta. Pharm. Hung. 1991; 61(6): 317–23.
Geissberger, P., et al. “Constituents of Bidens pilosa L.: do the components found so far explain the use of this plant in traditional medicine?” Acta Trop. 1991; 48(4): 251–61.
Hudson, J. B., et al. “Investigation of the antiviral action of the photoactive compound phenylheptatriyne.” Photochem. Photobiol. 1986; 43(1): 27–33.
Boily, Y., et al. “Screening of medicinal plants of Rwanda (central Africa) for antimicrobial activity.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1986; 16(1): 1–13.
Bondarenko, A. S., et al. “The antimicrobial properties of the polyacetylene antibiotic phenylheptatriyne.” Mikrobiol. Zh. 1985; 47(2): 81–3.
Hudson, J. B., et al. “Nature of the interaction between the photoactive compound phenylheptatriyne and animal viruses.” Photochem. Photobiol. 1982; 36(2): 181–85.
Arnason, T., et al. “Photosensitization of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae by phenylheptatriyne from Bidens pilosa.” Can. J. Microbiol. 1980; 26(6): 698–705.

Mullaca (Physalis angulata)
Osho, A., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Physalis angulata. L." Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2010;7(4):303-6.
Silva, M. T., et al. “Studies on antimicrobial activity, in vitro, of Physalis angulata L. (Solanaceae) fraction and physalin B bringing out the importance of assay determination.” Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 2005 Nov; 100(7): 779-82.
Hwang, J. K., et al. “Anticariogenic activity of some tropical medicinal plants against Streptococcus mutans.” Fitoterapia. 2004 Sep; 75(6): 596-8.
Pietro, R. C., et al. “In vitro antimycobacterial activities of Physalis angulata L.” Phytomedicine 2000; 7(4): 335–38.
Januario, A. H., et al. “Antimycobacterial physalins from Physalis angulata L. (Solanaceae).” Phytother. Res. 2002; 16(5): 445-48.
Hussain, H., et al. “Plants in Kano ethnomedicine; screening for antimicrobial activity and alkaloids.” Int. J. Pharmacol. 1991; 29(1): 51–56.
Otake, T., et al. “Screening of Indonesian plant extracts for anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Type 1 (HIV-1) Activity.” Phytother. Res. 1995; 9(1): 6–10.
Kurokawa, M., et al. “Antiviral traditional medicines against Herpes simplex virus (HSV-1), polio virus, and measles virus in vitro and their therapeutic efficacies for HSV-1 infection in mice." Antiviral Res. 1993; 22(2/3): 175–88.
Kusumoto, I. T., et al. “Screening of some Indonesian medicinal plants for inhibitory effects on HIV-1 protease.” Shoyakugaku Zasshi 1992; 46(2): 190-93.
Ogunlana, E. O., et al. “Investigations into the antibacterial activities of local plants.” Planta Med. 1975; 27: 354.

Clavillia (Mirabilis jalapa)
Bolognesi, A. et al. “Ribosome-inactivating and adenine polynucleotide glycosylase activities in Mirabilis jalapa L. tissues.” J. Biol. Chem. 2002; 277(16) 13709–16.
Vivanco, J. M., et al. “Characterization of two novel type 1 ribosome-inactivating proteins from the storage roots of the Andean crop Mirabilis expansa.” Plant Physiol. 1999; 119(4): 1447–56.
Dimayuga, R. E., et al. ”Antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants from Baja California Sur (Mexico).” Pharmaceutical Biol. 1998; 36(1): 33–43.
De Bolle, M. F., et al. “Antimicrobial peptides from Mirabilis jalapa and Amarantus caudatus: expression, processing, localization and biological activity in transgenic tobacco.” Plant Mol. Biol. 1996; 31(5): 993–1008.
Kataoka, J., et al. “Adenine depurination and inactivation of plant ribosomes by an antiviral protein of Mirabilis jalapa (MAP).” Plant Mol. Biol. 1992; 20(6): 111–19.
Wong, R. N., et al. “Characterization of Mirabilis antiviral protein—a ribosome inactivating protein from Mirabilis jalapa L.” Biochem. Int. 1992; 28(4): 585–93.
Cammue, B. P., et al. “Isolation and characterization of a novel class of plant antimicrobial peptides from Mirabilis jalapa L. seeds.” J. Biol. Chem. 1992; 267(4): 2228–33.
Kusamba, C., et al. “Antibacterial activity of Mirabilis jalapa seed powder.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1991; 35(2): 197–99.
Caceres, A., et al. “Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1987; 20(3): 223–37.

Simarouba (Simarouba amara)
Valdes, A., et al. "In vitro anti-microbial activity of the Cuban medicinal plants Simarouba glauca DC, Melaleuca leucadendron L and Artemisia absinthium L." Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2008 Sep;103(6):615-8.
Apers, S., et al. "Antiviral activity of simalikalactone D, a quassinoid from Quassia africana." Planta Med. 2002 Jan;68(1):20-4.
Morre, D. J., et al. “Effect of the quassinoids glaucarubolone and simalikalactone D on growth of cells permanently infected with feline and human immunodeficiency viruses and on viral infections.” Life Sci. 1998; 62(3): 213-9.
Rahman, S., et al. “Anti-tuberculosis activity of quassinoids.” Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1997; 45(9): 1527-9.
Kaif-A-Kamb, M., et al. “Search for new antiviral agents of plant origin.” Pharm. Acta Helv. 1992; 67(5–6): 130–147.
Caceres, A. “Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. 1. Screening of 84 plants against enterobacteria." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1990; 30(1): 55–73.
May, G., et al. “Antiviral activity of aqueous extracts from medicinal plants in tissue cultures.” Arzneim-Forsch 1978; 28(1): 1–7.

Brazilian Peppertree (Schinus molle)
Gomes, F., et al. "Antimicrobial lectin from Schinus terebinthifolius leaf." J Appl Microbiol. 2012 Nov 28.
Rocha, P., et al. "Synergistic Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oil of Aguaribay (Schinus molle L.)." Molecules. 2012 Oct 12;17(10):12023-36.
Montanari, R., et al. "Exposure to Anacardiaceae volatile oils and their constituents induces lipid peroxidation within food-borne bacteria cells." Molecules. 2012 Aug 14;17(8):9728-40
Moura-Costa, G., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of plants used as medicinals on an indigenous reserve in Rio das Cobras, ParanŠ, Brazil." J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Sep 28;143(2):631-8.
Leite, S., et al. "Randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of the vaginal use of metronidazole with a Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus) extract for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis." Braz J Med Biol Res. 2011 Mar;44(3):245-52
Johann, S., et al. "Antifungal activity of schinol and a new biphenyl compound isolated from Schinus terebinthifolius against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis." Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2010 Oct 12;9:30.
Pereira, E., et al. "In vitro antimicrobial activity of Brazilian medicinal plant extracts against pathogenic microorganisms of interest to dentistry." Planta Med. 2011 Mar;77(4):401-4.
Johann, S., et al. "Antifungal activity of extracts of some plants used in Brazilian traditional medicine against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis." Pharm Biol. 2010 Apr;48(4):388-96.
Johann, S., et al. "Antifungal activity of schinol and a new biphenyl compound isolated from Schinus terebinthifolius against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis" Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2010; 9: 30.
Salazar-Aranda, R., et al. "Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Plants from Northeast of Mexico" Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011; 2011: 536139.
Salazar-Aranda, R., et al. "Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Plants from Northeast of Mexico." Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2009 Sep 21.
El-Massry, K., et al. "Chemical compositions and antioxidant/antimicrobial activities of various samples prepared from Schinus terebinthifolius leaves cultivated in Egypt." J. Agric. Food Chem. 2009 Jun; 57(12): 5265-70.
Hayouni el, A., et al. "Tunisian Salvia officinalis L. and Schinus molle L. essential oils: their chemical compositions and their preservative effects against Salmonella inoculated in minced beef meat." Int. J. Food Microbiol. 2008 Jul; 125(3): 242-51.
Molina-Salinas, G., et al. "Evaluation of the flora of Northern Mexico for in vitro antimicrobial and antituberculosis activity." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Aug 23;
de Lima, M. R., et al. “Anti-bacterial activity of some Brazilian medicinal plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Apr; 105(1-2): 137-47.
Schmourlo, G., et al. “Screening of antifungal agents using ethanol precipitation and bioautography of medicinal and food plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Jan; 96(3): 563-8.
de Carvalho, M. C. “Evaluation of mutagenic activity in an extract of pepper tree stem bark (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi).” Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 2003; 42(3): 185-91.
de Melo, Jr., E. J., et al. “Medicinal plants in the healing of dry socket in rats: Microbiological and microscopic analysis.” Phytomedicine. 2002; 9(2): 109–16.
Quiroga, E. N., et al. “Screening antifungal activities of selected medicinal plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2001; 74(1): 89–96.
Camano, R. “Essential oil composition with bactericide activity.” United States patent 5,635,184; June 3, 1997.
Camano, R. “Method for treating bacterial infections.” United States patent 5,512,284; April 30, 1996.
Martinez, M. J., et al. “Screening of some Cuban medicinal plants for antimicrobial activity.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1996; 52(3): 171–74.
Cuella, M. J., et al. “Two fungal lanostane derivatives as phospholipase A2 inhibitors.” J. Nat. Prod. 1996; 59(10): 977–79.
Gundidza, M., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of essential oil from Schinus molle Linn.” Central African J. Med. 1993; 39(11): 231–34.
Dikshit, A. “Schinus molle: a new source of natural fungitoxicant.” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1986; 51(5): 1085–88.
El-Keltawi, N., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of some Egyptian aromatic plants.” Herba Pol. 1980; 26(4): 245–50.
Ross, S., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of some Egyptian aromatic plants.” Fitoterapia. 1980; 51: 201–5.
Simons, J., et al. “Succulent-type as sources of plant virus inhibitors.” Phytopathology. 1963; 53: 677–83.

Gervâo (Stachytarpheta jamaicensis)
Isacchi, N., et al. "Antihyperalgesic activity of verbascoside in two models of neuropathic pain." J Pharm Pharmacol. 2011 Apr;63(4):594-601.
Akdemir, Z., et al. "Bioassay-guided isolation of anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and wound healer glycosides from the flowers of Verbascum mucronatum Lam." J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Jul 14;136(3):436-43.
Speranza, L., et al. "Antiinflammatory effects in THP-1 cells treated with verbascoside." Phytother Res. 2010 Sep;24(9):1398-404.
Yamada, P., et al. "Inhibitory effect of acteoside isolated from Cistanche tubulosa on chemical mediator release and inflammatory cytokine production by RBL-2H3 and KU812 cells." Planta Med. 2010 Oct;76(14):1512-8.
Sulaiman, M., et al. "Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae) in experimental animal models." Med Princ Pract. 2009;18(4):272-9.
Martins, F., et al. "Verbascoside isolated from Lepechinia speciosa has inhibitory activity against HSV-1 and HSV-2 in vitro." Nat Prod Commun. 2009 Dec;4(12):1693-6.
Okokom, J., et al. "In vivo antimalarial activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Stachytarpheta cayennensis." Indian J Pharmacol. 2008 Jun;40(3):111-3.
Rigano, D., et al. "Antibacterial activity of flavonoids and phenylpropanoids from Marrubium globosum ssp. libanoticum." Phytother. Res. 2006 Dec 21;
Bermejo, P., et al. “Antiviral activity of seven iridoids, three saikosaponins and one phenylpropanoid glycoside extracted from Bupleurum rigidum and Scrophularia scorodonia.” Planta Med. 2002; 68(2): 106–10.
Didry, N., et al. “Isolation and antibacterial activity of phenylpropanoid derivatives from Ballota nigra.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1999; 67(2): 197–202.
Chariandy, C. M., et al. “Screening of medicinal plants from Trinidad and Tobago for antimicrobial and insecticidal properties.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1999; 64(3): 265-70.

Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia)
Zhu, F., et al. "Alpha-momorcharin, a RIP produced by bitter melon, enhances defense response in tobacco plants against diverse plant viruses and shows antifungal activity in vitro." Planta. 2012 Sep 16.
Santos, K., et al. "Trypanocide, cytotoxic, and antifungal activities of Momordica charantia. Pharm Biol. 2012 Feb;50(2):162-6.
Feng, E., et al. "Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is a cornucopia of health: a review of its credited antidiabetic, anti-HIV, and antitumor properties." Curr Mol Med. 2011 Jul;11(5):417-36. Review.
Mahomoodally, M., et al. "Screening for alternative antibiotics: an investigation into the antimicrobial activities of medicinal food plants of Mauritius." J Food Sci. 2010 Apr;75(3):M173-7.
Gupta, S., et al. "Momordicatin purified from fruits of Momordica charantia is effective to act as a potent antileishmania agent." Parasitol Int. 2010 Jun;59(2):192-7.
Puri, M., et al. "Ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs) from Momordica charantia for anti viral therapy." Curr. Mol. Med. 2009 Dec; 9(9): 1080-94.
Coutinho, H., et al. "Effect of Momordica charantia L. in the resistance to aminoglycosides in methicilin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus." Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 2009 Sep 2.
Braca, A., et al. "Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Momordica charantia seed essential oil." Fitoterapia. 2008; 79(2): 123-5.
Fan, J., et al. "Inhibition on Hepatitis B virus in vitro of recombinant MAP30 from bitter melon." Mol. Biol. Rep. 2009; 36(2): 381-8.
Vashishta, A., et al. "In vitro refolded napin-like protein of Momordica charantia expressed in Escherichia coli displays properties of native napin." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 2006; 1764(5): 847-55.
Das, P., et al. "Screening of antihelminthic effects of Indian plant extracts: a preliminary report." J. Altern. Complement. Med. 2006 Apr; 12(3): 299-301.
Schmourlo, G., et al. “Screening of antifungal agents using ethanol precipitation and bioautography of medicinal and food plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Jan; 96(3): 563
Jiratchariyakul, W., et al. "HIV inhibitor from Thai bitter gourd." Planta Med. 2001 Jun; 67(4): 350-3.
Zheng, Y. T., et al. “Alpha-momorcharin inhibits HIV-1 replication in acutely but not chronically infected T-lymphocytes.” Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1999; 20(3): 239-43.
Frame, A. D., et al. “Plants from Puerto Rico with anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis properties.” P. R. Health Sci. J. 1998; 17(3): 243–52.
Khan, M. R., et al. “Momordica charantia and Allium sativum: Broad spectrum antibacterial activity.” Korean J. Pharmacog. 1998; 29(3): 155–58.
Bourinbaiar, A. S., et al. “The activity of plant-derived antiretroviral proteins MAP30 and GAP31 against Herpes simplex virus in vitro.” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1996; 219(3): 923–29.
Omoregbe, R. E., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants’ extracts on Escherichia coli,Salmonella paratyphi and Shigella dysenteriae.” Afr. J. Med. Med. Sci. 1996; 25(4): 373–75.
Lee-Huang, S., et al. “Inhibition of the integrase of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 by anti-HIV plant proteins MAP30 and GAP31.” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 1995; 92(19): 8818–22.
Dong, T. X., et al. “Ribosome inactivating protein-like activity in seeds of diverse Cucurbitaceae plants.” Indian J. Exp. Biol. 1993; 25(3): 415–19.
Zhang, Q. C. “Preliminary report on the use of Momordica charantia extract by HIV patients.” J. Naturopath. Med. 1992; 3: 65–9.
Hussain, H. S. N., et al. “Plants in Kano ethomedicine: Screening for antimicrobial activity and alkaloids.” Int. J. Pharmacog. 1991; 29(1): 51–6.
Huang, T. M., et al. “Studies on antiviral activity of the extract of Momordica charantia and its active principle.” Virologica. 1990; 5(4): 367–73.
Lee-Huang, S. “MAP 30: A new inhibitor of HIV-1 infection and replication.” FEBS Lett. 1990; 272(1–2): 12–18.
Takemoto, D. J. “Purification and characterization of a cytostatic factor with anti-viral activity from the bitter melon.” Prep. Biochem. 1983; 13(4): 371–93.
Takemoto, D. J., et al. “Purification and characterization of a cytostatic factor from the bitter melon Momordica charantia.Prep. Biochem. 1982; 12(4): 355-75.

*The statements contained herein have not been evaluated
by the Food and Drug Administration. The information contained herein is intended and provided for education, research, entertainment and information purposes only. This information is not intended to be used to diagnose, prescribe or replace proper medical care. The plants and/or formulas described herein are not intended to treat, cure, diagnose, mitigate or prevent any disease and no medical claims are made.
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Last updated 12-31-2012