Boldo - Peumus boldus Boldo - Peumus boldus

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BOLDO
(Peumus boldus)

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BOLDO

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  • Family: Monimiaceae
    Genus: Peumus
    Species: boldus
    Synonyms: Boldea fragrans, Peumus fragrans
    Common Names: boldo, boldu, boldus, boldoa, boldina, baldina, molina
    Part Used: Leaves


    From The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs:

    BOLDO
    HERBAL PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS
    Main Actions Other Actions Standard Dosage
  • stimulates digestion
  • supports heart
  • Leaves
  • protects liver
  • stimulates
  • Infusion: 1/2 cup 1-2 times daily
  • detoxifies liver
  • reduces gas
  • Tincture: 2-4 ml twice daily
  • stimulates bile
  • moderately laxative
  • Capsules: 1-2 g twice daily
  • supports gallbladder
  • reduces inflammation
  •  
  • expels worms
  • relieves pain
  •  
  • kills parasites
  •    
  • increases urination
  •    

    Boldo is a slow-growing, shrubby evergreen tree that grows 6-8 m in height and produces small, berrylike fruit. The plant's scented flowers are either male or female, and only one sex is found on any one plant; as such, male and female plants must be grown together for the plants to reproduce. Boldo is found in the Andean regions of Chile and Peru, and also is indigenous to parts of Morocco. It is cultivated in Italy, Brazil, and North Africa to meet the demand for its medicinal leaves in European and Canadian markets where it is widely used.

    TRIBAL AND HERBAL MEDICINE USES

    Indigenous uses of boldo have been widely documented. Legend has it that the medicinal uses of the plant were discovered by chance: a Chilean shepherd noticed that his sheep were healthier, and had fewer liver problems, when they grazed on native boldo plants growing in his fields. Since this discovery the plant has been used by the indigenous peoples of Chile for liver, bowel, and gallbladder troubles. It is also widely used in Chilean folk medicine to expel intestinal worms, for insomnia, rheumatism, cystitis, colds, hepatitis, constipation, flatulence, poor digestion, gallstones, earaches, and it is considered a general tonic. For many years the fruit has been eaten as a spice, the wood has been used for charcoal, and the bark has been used in tanning hides. In parts of Peru boldo leaves are used by indigenous tribes against liver diseases, to treat gallstones, and as a diuretic.

    Boldo's uses in other traditional medicine systems are well documented. Worldwide, the plant is used in homeopathy and herbal medicine in the treatment of digestive disorders, as a laxative, a diuretic, for liver problems and to increase the production of bile in the gallbladder. The leaves are used against intestinal worms, and botanist Dr. James Duke reports its traditional use for urogenital inflammations, gonorrhea, syphilis, gout, jaundice, dyspepsia, rheumatism, head colds, and earaches. In Brazilian herbal medicine systems, boldo is used for a variety of disorders including hepatitis, liver congestion, constipation, flatulence, dizziness, stomach and intestinal cramps and pain, gallstones, insomnia, rheumatism, and a lack of appetite. Throughout the rest of South America, boldo is used for gonorrhea, as well as for liver, gallbladder, and digestive complaints.

    Boldo is the subject of a German therapeutic monograph that allows the use (as an herbal drug) for mild gastrointestinal spasms and dyspeptic disorders. In Germany, it is employed for liver and gallbladder complaints, gastric disorders, and to stimulate gastric secretions (especially bile production and secretion in the gallbladder and liver). It is also used for loss of appetite and as an antispasmodic. It is used for similar purposes in other countries throughout Europe.

    In American herbal medicine systems, boldo is used to stimulate the secretion of saliva, bile flow and liver activity; it's chiefly valued as a remedy for gallstones, liver problems, and gallbladder pain.

    PLANT CHEMICALS

    Boldo has many biologically active chemicals. At least 17 alkaloids have been documented thus far, several of which are believed to be boldo's main active constituents. Much of the biological activity of the plant has been attributed to a single alkaloid called boldine.

    In various studies over the years boldine has shown to protect the liver, to stimulate the production of bile in the liver, as well as to stimulate digestion, increase the secretion of gastric juices and stimulate the production of bile and its secretion from the gallbladder. In other laboratory tests, boldine has demonstrated diuretic, fever reducing, and anti-inflammatory properties as well as the ability to reduce excess uric acid. In animal studies, boldine exhibited anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic activities, as well as the ability to protect against colon damage and inflammation in induced colitis and colon inflammation in animals. Other research on boldine indicates that it has a strong cellular protective and antioxidant effect in the blood and can normalize sticky blood (inhibits platelet aggregation). Recently, in 2002, boldine was reported to have an effect on the cardiovascular system as well. Researchers found that it increased coronary blood flow, depressed cardiac force and heart rate, and had a vasorelaxant effect.

    Most of these studies validate the plant's traditional uses for many types of digestive and elimination problems, gallbladder problems and liver disorders. With so many studies on this important active alkaloid, it is understandable that most boldo herbal drugs sold in Europe are standardized for their the boldine content.

    In addition to boldine, boldo contains ascaridole, benzaldehyde, boldin, boldoglucin, bornyl-acetate, 1,8-cineol, coclaurine, coumarin, cuminaldehyde, 2-decanone, 6(a)-7 dehydroboldine, diethylphthalate, eugenol, farnesol, fenchone, gamma terpinene, 2-heptaone, isoboldine, kaempferols, laurolitsine, laurotetainine, norboldine, norisocorydine, pachycarpine, P-cymene, P-cymol, pro-nuciferine, 2-octanone, reticuline, rhamnosides, sabinene, sinoacutine, terpinoline, thymol, trans verbenol, 2-tridecanone, and 2-undecanone.

    BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND CLINICAL RESEARCH

    Researchers verified indigenous uses of boldo leaves in the 1950s and 1960s and showed that leaf extracts had diuretic, digestion stimulation, and bile-producing properties in animal studies. Although these properties are attributed largely to the plant chemical boldine, one study with rats indicated that an alcohol extract of boldo leaves was more active than boldine alone. An ethanol extract of the leaf administered to mice was shown to have a liver protective effect, preventing liver damage from chemical exposure. A recent human study demonstrated that boldo relaxes smooth muscle tissue and prolongs intestinal transit (which again validates its traditional uses for digestive functions). The antioxidant property of boldo leaves has also been documented, and animal studies confirm that boldo leaf has an anti-inflammatory effect. A U.S. monograph reports that boldo can increase urine output by 50%, which validates the plant's traditional use as a diuretic.

    Toxicity studies show that boldo should not be consumed regularly or in high dosages, and it should be respected for its very active qualities. The essential oil of the plant contains a compound called asaridole. Asaridole has antiparasitic and worm- expelling properties, but it is also a documented liver toxin. Therefore, distilled essential oil products of boldo should only be used externally. In addition, boldine has been reported to have toxic effects in high dosages. In large quantities (higher than it occurs in traditional dosages of the natural leaf), it causes cramps, convulsions, and muscle paralysis, eventually leading to respiratory paralysis. It also has demonstrated a uterine relaxant effect in rats. In a 2000 study with rats, an extract of dry boldo leaves and the chemical boldine showed abortive actions and lowered the blood levels of bilirubin, cholesterol, glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and urea. These researchers reported, however, that the long-term administration of regular dosages of the leaf extract and boldine did not cause any toxic effect over a period of 90 days.


    CURRENT PRACTICAL USES

    Centuries ago, boldo was a little-known plant growing in farmers' pastures in Chile. Today, huge fields of boldo are cultivated around the world to supply the market demand for a specific herbal remedy or herbal drug for gallstones and gallbladder inflammation and for many types of liver, stomach, and digestive conditions. However, persons with gallstones should seek the help and advice of a qualified and trained healthcare practitioner before self-medicating with boldo. It has such a pronounced effect on the gallbladder that it can cause the gallbladder to dump stones and grit rapidly, possibly causing a blockage in the bile ducts below the gallbladder and/or damaging the pancreas. It is best used in small quantities and with other plants to avoid these problems.

    Many digestive disorders are due to a lack of bile and digestive juices, which result in sluggish digestion (causing bloating and an uncomfortable feeling of fullness after a meal, intestinal gas, fermentation and belching, and poor absorption of nutrients in the stomach and bowel). Boldo is one of the best natural remedies for these types of digestive problems because it stimulates the production and secretion of bile and other digestive juices in the stomach, gallbladder, and liver, thereby maximizing and speeding digestive processes in general. It also is one of the first natural remedies natural health practitioners use to assist in detoxifying the liver and to prevent liver damage from toxins and drugs that are known to have a toxic effect on the liver. However, consumers should not exceed the recommended dosages for boldo: it is a very powerful and active plant that should be treated with respect.

    There are several boldo products available in capsules, tablets, and liquid extracts in the U.S. market, including extracts providing a standardized amount of boldine. These standardized extracts are sold as herbal drugs in Europe by prescription only; however, they are sold as over-the-counter herbal supplements in the United States.


    BOLDO PLANT SUMMARY
    Main Preparation Method: infusion or tincture

    Main Actions (in order):
    liver and gallbladder bile stimulant, digestive stimulant, hepatoprotective (liver protector), vermifuge (expels worms)

    Main Uses:

    1. for gallstones and as a gallbladder stimulant (to stimulate bile)
    2. to tone, balance, and strengthen liver function (increases liver bile and detoxifies the liver)
    3. for upper digestive tract disorders (ulcers, sluggish digestion, lack of bile, dyspepsia)
    4. for bowel disorders (colitis, leaky gut, constipation, spastic colon, irritable bowel syndrome [IBS])
    5. for intestinal worms and liver flukes
    Properties/Actions Documented by Research:
    abortive, antioxidant, antiparasitic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, digestive stimulant, diuretic, febrifuge (reduces fever) gastroprotective, hepatoprotective (liver protector), hepatotonic (tones, balances, strengthens the liver), hypocholesterolemic (lowers cholesterol), hypoglycemic, liver and gallbladder bile stimulant, muscle relaxant, platelet aggregation inhibitor, uterine relaxant, vasorelaxant (relaxes blood vessels), vermifuge (expels worms)

    Other Properties/Actions Documented by Traditional Use:
    analgesic (pain-reliever), antihepatotoxic (liver detoxifier), blood cleanser, cardiotonic (tones, balances, strengthens the heart), carminative (expels gas), hepatotonic (tones, balances, strengthens the liver), laxative, stimulant

    Cautions: It has abortive and blood-thinning effects and may cause birth defects. Don't use while pregnant. Don't exceed recommended dosages.




    Traditional Preparation: As a digestive aid or liver detoxifier, use 1/2 cup of a leaf infusion one or two times daily with meals or 2-4 ml of a 4:1 tincture twice daily. Or, if desired, take 1-2 g of powdered leaf in tablets or capsules twice daily. For standardized extracts, follow the label instructions. See instruction page for Herbal Preparation Methods if necessary.

    Contraindications:

    • Boldo has demonstrated abortive properties and caused fetal birth defects in animal studies and therefore should not be used during pregnancy or while breast-feeding.
    • Chemicals in boldo may thin the blood. Those taking blood-thinning medications (such as Warfarin®) or those with disorders that have a tendency towards thin blood (such as thrombocytopenia or hemophilia) should not take boldo unless under the supervision of a qualified healthcare practitioner.
    • Boldo has diuretic effects and is contraindicated for long-term, chronic use.
    • Do not exceed the recommended dosages.

    Drug Interactions:

    • Boldo may potentiate the effects of blood-thinning medications such as Warfarin®.
    • One in vivo clinical study suggests that boldo and/or boldine can decrease metabolic activation and/or metabolism of toxins, drugs, and chemicals in the liver. As such, boldo may decrease the effect or reduce the half-life of certain drugs that should be metabolized in the liver.


    WORLDWIDE ETHNOMEDICAL USES
    Asia for digestive problems, dyspepsia, hangover, intestinal gas, liver disorders
    Brazil for anorexia, bile insufficiency, cholecystitis, constipation, debilitation, digestive disorders, dizziness, dyspnea, gallstones, gastritis, gonorrhea, hepatitis, insomnia, intestinal gas, liver congestion, liver disorders, liver support, rheumatism, stomach problems, stomach pain, urinary insufficiency, weakness, and to stimulate digestion
    Chile for anorexia, bile insufficiency, bowel problems, high cholesterol, colds, cough, constipation, cystitis, diarrhea, dyspepsia, earache, edema, fluid retention, gallbladder problems, gallstones, gastric sluggishness, hypothyroidism, inflammation, intestinal gas, intestinal cramps, intestinal parasites, jaundice, liver disorders, liver support, liver protection, obesity, rheumatism, sores, stomachache, stomach cramps, urinary insufficiency, worms, and as an antioxidant, antiseptic, digestive stimulant, and sedative
    Europe for bile insufficiency, digestion problems, dyspepsia, gallbladder pain, gallstones, gastrointestinal spasms, gonorrhea, gout, liver disorders, spasms, urinary insufficiency, and as an appetite stimulant and digestive stimulant
    Latin
    America
    for anorexia, bile insufficiency, bowel problems, colds, constipation, cystitis, digestion problems, dyspepsia, earache, gallbladder problems, gallstones, gonorrhea, gout, hepatitis, hepatitis, intestinal gas, intestinal parasites, jaundice, kidney stones, liver disorders, liver support, malaria, pain, parasites, rheumatism, spasms, stomach pain, syphilis, tonic, urogenital inflammation, urethritis, urinary insufficiency, worms, and as a antiseptic, digestive stimulant, and general tonic
    Mexico for bile disorders, digestive disorders, gallbladder problems, gallstones, liver disorders, liver support, pain, rheumatism, and as a digestive stimulant
    Turkey for liver support, rheumatism, urinary insufficiency, worms and used as an antiseptic, digestive stimulant, sedative, and tonic
    United States for bile stimulation, cystitis, digestive problems, elimination problems, gallbladder disorders, gallstones, gastrointestinal spasms, gout, hepatitis, inflammation, kidney disorders, liver disorders, pain, uric acid elimination, urinary infections, urinary insufficiency, urinary antiseptic, and used as an antiseptic (urinary), digestive stimulant, sedative, and tonic




    The above text has been printed from The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs by Leslie Taylor, copyrighted © 2005
    All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, including websites, without written permission.

    A complete Technical Data Report is available for this plant.

    † The statements contained herein have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The information contained in this plant database file is intended for education, entertainment and information purposes only. This information is not intended to be used to diagnose, prescribe or replace proper medical care. The plant described herein is not intended to treat, cure, diagnose, mitigate or prevent any disease. Please refer to our Conditions of Use for using this plant database file and web site.





    REFERENCED QUOTES ON BOLDO

    1. "Boldo's medicinal properties were discovered when sheep grazing in a field of Boldo no longer had constipation and liver trouble. Its fragrant minty leaves contain an essential oil that is useful for digestive upsets, liver and bile problems, and kidney and urinary tract illnesses. In Chile, it is customary to use Boldo as a vermifuge to kill intestinal worms. (A vermifuge is a substance that helps eliminate parasites.) Chronic digestive problems such as gas and poor digestion respond well to this bile-stimulating herb. It reduces excess gastric acidity and is often used as a treatment for gall bladder stones. Boldo is one of the most popular herbs in South America and is considered to be an excellent general tonic."

    2. "Boldo is a widely used herb in South America. It has been used to treat liver, gallbladder and bowel dysfunctions. It helps promote fat digestion by stimulating the secretion of bile. It helps neutralize acid and is good for digestion. It has been used in Latin America for urogenital inflammations such as gonorrhea. Elsewhere it has been used for gout, hepatitis, rheumatism, syphilis and worms. It has been shown to be an antiseptic and diuretic which is good for urinary infections and uric acid elimination."

    3. "ACTIONS: Nourishes blood, Enhances digestion, Aids liver function, Balances pH, General tonic TRADITIONAL USE: One of the most widely used herbs in South America, Brazilians believe Boldo to be an excellent general tonic for the organism. It has been used to help treat liver and bowel dysfunctions. Encourages proper digestion by stimulating the secretion of bile. MERIDIAN INDICATIONS: Increases Stomach Yin, Opens liver / Gallbladder meridian, EAV POINTS: Liver, Stomach Small Intestine."

    4. "Tonic, antiseptic, stimulant. Useful in chronic torpor. The oil in 5-drop doses has been found useful in genito-urinary inflammation. Has long been recognized in South America as a valuable cure for gonorrhea."

    7. "Boldo is a specific for gallbladder problems like stones or inflammations. It is also useful when there is visceral pain due to other problems in the liver or gallbladder. Boldo has mild urinary demulcent and antiseptic properties and so would be used in cystitis. Actions: Cholagogue, hepatic, diuretic, sedative."

    8. Uses: Useful in treating symptoms of liver dysfunctions and diseases (hepatitis, liver congestions), constipation, gases and poor digestion. Acts as a tonic for the organism, helps combat weakness, dizziness."

    18. "The dried leaves of Peumus boldus Mol. (family Monimiaceae), an evergreen shrub native to Chile, have an ancient reputation as a "hepatic tonic," diuretic, and laxative. The herb contains about 2 percent of a volatile oil, the principal constituents of which are ascaridole, eucalyptol, and p-cymol, About 0.25 to 0.5 percent of an alkaloidal mixture is also present. Boldine, an aporphine alkaloid, constitutes about one-fourth of the total; the remainder consists of about 16 different alkaloids.59 Boldine is responsible for both the choleretic and diuretic activity of the leaves.64 Although the herb may increase the flow of urine substantially, the mechanism of action is still unknown, so it is uncertain if boldine's action is one of true diuresis or simply aquaresis, as is the case with most herbs in this category.
    Although Commission E has approved the use of boldo for the treatment of dyspepsia as well as for stomach and intestinal cramps, it must be noted that the volatile oil in the leaves contains about 40 percent ascaridole, a rather toxic component. Since no chronic toxicity testing has been carried out, Hansel has recommended that prolonged use of the herb or any consumption by pregnant women be avoided."
    59. Hansel, R.: Phytopharmaka, 2nd ed., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991,
    pp 186-191.
    64. Lawrence Review of Natural Products: July, 1989.





    Third-Party Published Research on Boldo

    All available third-party research on boldo can be found at PubMed. A partial listing of the published research on boldo is shown below:

    Antioxidant & Cellular Protective Actions:
    Lau, Y., et al. "Boldine protects endothelial function in hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress through an antioxidant mechanism." Biochem Pharmacol. 2012 Nov 22. doi:pii: S0006-2952(12)00751-4.
    Sobarzo-Sánchez, E., et al. "Applied biological and physicochemical activity of isoquinoline alkaloids: oxoisoaporphine and boldine." Molecules. 2012 Sep 12;17(9):10958-70.
    Falé P., et al. "Acetylcholinesterase inhibition, antioxidant activity and toxicity of Peumus boldus water extracts on HeLa and Caco-2 cell lines." Food Chem Toxicol. 2012 Aug;50(8):2656-62.
    Lau, Y., et al. "The aporphine alkaloid boldine improves endothelial function in spontaneously hypertensive rats." Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2012 Jan 1;237(1):93-8.
    Fernández, J. et al. "Effect of boldo (Peumus boldus Molina) infusion on lipoperoxidation induced by cisplatin in mice liver." Phytother Res. 2009; 23(7):1024-7.
    Yu, B., et al."The aporphine alkaloid boldine induces adiponectin expression and regulation in 3T3-L1 cells." J. Med. Food. 2009 Oct; 12(5): 1074-83.
    Konrath, E., et al. "Antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties of boldine on hippocampal slices exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation in vitro." Neurotoxicology. 2008 Nov; 29(6): 1136-40.
    Hidalgo, M., et al. "Photostability and photoprotection factor of boldine and glaucine." J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 2005 Jul; 80(1): 65-9.
    O'brien, P., et al. “Boldine and its antioxidant or health-promoting properties.” Chem. Biol. Interact. 2006 Jan; 159(1): 1-17.
    Milian, L., et al. “Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation inhibited by aporphine and phenanthrene alkaloids semi-synthesized from natural boldine.” Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2004; 52(6): 696-9.
    Santanam, N., et al. “A novel alkaloid antioxidant, Boldine and synthetic antioxidant, reduced form of RU486, inhibit the oxidation of LDL in-vitro and atherosclerosis in vivo in LDLR(-/-) mice.” Atherosclerosis. 2004 Apr; 173(2):203-10.
    Schmeda-Hirschmann, G., “Free-radical scavengers and antioxidants from Peumus boldus Mol. ("Boldo").
    Free Radic. Res. 2003 Apr; 37(4): 447-52.
    Youn, Y. C., et al. “Protective effect of boldine on dopamine-induced membrane permeability transition in brain mitochondria and viability loss in PC12 cells.” Biochem. Pharmacol. 2002 Feb; 63(3): 495-505.
    Jimenez, I., et al. “Protective effects of boldine against free radical-induced erythrocyte lysis.” Phytother. Res. 2000; 14(5): 339–43.
    Reiniger, I. W., et al. “Boldine action against the stannous chloride effect.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1999 Dec; 68(1-3): 345-8.
    Ubeda, A., et al. “Iron-reducing and free-radical-scavenging properties of apomorphine and some related benzylisoquinolines.” Free Radic. Biol. Med. 1993 Aug; 15(2): 159-67.
    Speisky, H., et al. “Antioxidant properties of the alkaloid boldine in systems undergoing lipid peroxidation and enzyme inactivation.” Biochem. Pharmacol. 1991 Jun; 41(11): 1575-81.

    Liver Protective & Detoxifying Actions:
    Kubinova, R., et al. “Chemoprotective activity of boldine: modulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes.” Pharmazie. 2001; 56(3): 242–43.
    Jimenez, I., et al. “Biological disposition of boldine: in vitro and in vivo studies.” Phytother. Res. 2000 Jun; 14(4): 254-60.
    Jang, Y. Y., et al. “Protective effect of boldine on oxidative mitochondrial damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.” Pharmacol. Res. 2000; 42(4): 361–71.
    Bannach, R., et al. “Cytoprotective and antioxidant effects of boldine on tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced damage to isolated hepatocytes.” Cell Biol. Toxicol. 1996 Apr; 12(2): 89-100.
    Kringstein, P., et al. “Boldine prevents human liver microsomal lipid peroxidation and inactivation of cytochrome P4502E1.” Free Radic. Biol. Med. 1995; 18(3): 559–63.
    Cederbaum, A. I., et al. “Inhibition of rat liver microsomal lipid peroxidation by boldine.” Biochem, Pharmacol. 1992 Nov; 44(9): 1765-72.
    Lanhers, M. C., et al. “Hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of a traditional medicinal plant of Chile, Peumus boldus.” Planta Med. 1991; 57(2): 110–15.

    Anti-cholesterol, Hypoglycemic, & Anti-platelet Actions:
    Chi, T., et al. "Antihyperglycemic effect of aporphines and their derivatives in normal and diabetic rats." Planta Med. 2006 Oct; 72(13):1175-80.
    Eltze, M., et al. “Affinity profile at alpha(1)- and alpha(2) - adrenoceptor subtypes and in vitro cardiovascular actions of (+) - boldine.” Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2002; 443(1-3): 151-68.
    Teng, C. M., et al. “Antiplatelet effects of some aporphine and phenanthrene alkaloids in rabbits and man.” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1997; 49(7): 706–11.
    Almeida, E. R., et al. “Toxicological evaluation of the hydro-alcohol extract of the dry leaves of Peumus boldus and boldine in rats.” Phytother. Res. 2000; 14(2): 99–102.
    Chen, K. S., et al. “Antiplatelet and vasorelaxing actions of some aporphinoids.” Planta Med. 1996; 62(2): 133–36.

    Digestive Stimulant, Diuretic & Bile Stimulant Actions:
    Gotteland, M., et al. “Protective effect of boldine in experimental colitis.” Planta Med. 1997; 63(4): 311–15.
    Gotteland, M., et al. “Effect of a dry boldo extract on oro-cecal intestinal transit in healthy volunteers.” Rev. Med. Chil. 1995; 123(8): 955–60.
    Lévy-Appert-Collin, M. C., et al. “Galenic preparations from Peumus boldus leaves (Monimiacea).” J. Pharm. Belg. 1977; 32: 13.
    Hughes, D. W., et al. “Alkaloids of Peumus boldus. Isolation of laurotetanine and laurolitsine.” J. Pharm. Sci. 1968.

    Gallbladder Bile Stimulant Actions:
    Speisky, H., et al. “Boldo and boldine: an emerging case of natural drug development.” Pharmacol. Res. 1994 Jan-Feb; 29(1): 1-12.
    Tavares, D. C., et al. “Evaluation of the genotoxic potential of the alkaloid boldine in mammalian cell systems in vitro and in vivo.” Mutat. Res. 1994; 321(3): 139–45.
    Krug, H., et al. “New flavonol glycosides from the leaves of Peumus boldus Molina.” Pharmazie, 1965; Nov.

    Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, Muscle-Relaxant & Anti-Spasmodic Actions:
    Zhao, Q., et al. "Antinociceptive and free radical scavenging activities of alkaloids isolated from Lindera angustifolia Chen." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Jul; 106(3):408-13.
    Ivorra, M., et al. "8-NH2-boldine, an antagonist of alpha1A and alpha1B adrenoceptors without affinity for the alpha1D subtype: structural requirements for aporphines at alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes." Planta Med. 2005 Oct; 71(10): 897-903.
    Estelles, R., et al. “Effect of boldine, secoboldine, and boldine methine on angiotensin II-induced neurtrophil recruitment in vivo.” J. Leukoc. Biol. 2005 Sep; 78(3): 696-704.
    Kang, J. J., et al. “Studies on neuromuscular blockade by boldine in the mouse phrenic nerve diaphragm.” Planta Med. 1999; 65(2): 178–79.
    Kang, J. J., et al. “Effects of boldine on mouse diaphragm and sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles isolated from skeletal muscle.” Planta Med. 1998; 64(1): 18–21.
    Backhouse, N., et al. “Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of boldine.” Agents Actions 1994; 42(3–4): 114–17.
    Ivorra, M. D., et al. “Different mechanism of relaxation induced by aporphine alkaloids in rat uterus.” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1993; 45(5): 439–43.
    Lanhers, M. C., et al. “Hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of a traditional medicinal plant of Chile, Peumus boldus.” Planta Med. 1991; 57(2): 110–15.

    Anthelmintic (worm expelling) & Antiparasitic Actions:
    van Krimpen, M., et al. "Anthelmintic effects of phytogenic feed additives in Ascaris suum inoculated pigs." Vet Parasitol. 2010 Mar 25;168(3-4):269-77.
    Morello, A., et al. “Trypanocidal effect of boldine and related alkaloids upon several strains of Trypanosoma cruzi.” Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Pharmacol. Toxicol. Endocrinol. 1994; 107(3): 367-71.
    Johnson, M. A., et al. “Biosynthesis of ascaridole: iodide peroxidase-catalyzed synthesis of a monoterpene endoperoxide in soluble extracts of Chenopodium ambrosioides fruit.” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1984 Nov; 235(1): 254-66

    Anticancerous & Antileukemic Actions:
    Russon, A., et al. "Boldo prevents UV light and nitric oxide-mediated plasmid DNA damage and reduces the expression of Hsp70 protein in melanoma cancer cells." J Pharm Pharmacol. 2011 Sep;63(9):1219-29.
    Thomet, F., et al. "Cytotoxic thiocarbamate derivatives of boldine." Nat Prod Commun. 2010 Oct;5(10):1587-90.
    Gerhardt, D., et al. "Boldine: a potential new antiproliferative drug against glioma cell lines." Invest. New Drugs. 2009 Dec;27(6):517-25.
    Stevigny, C., et al. “Cytotoxic and antitumor potentialities of aporphinoid alkaloids.” Curr. Med. Chem. Anti-Cancer Agents. 2005 Mar; 5(2): 173-82.
    Gonzalez-Cabello, R., et al. “Effects of boldine on cellular immune functions in vitro.” J. Investig. Allergol. Clin. Immunol. 1994 May-Jun; 4(3): 139-45.

    Anti-fungal & Anti-bacterial Actions:
    Passone, M., et al. "Evaluation of the control ability of five essential oils against Aspergillus section Nigri growth and ochratoxin A accumulation in peanut meal extract agar conditioned at different water activities levels." Int J Food Microbiol. 2012 Oct 15;159(3):198-206.
    Mollataghi, A., et al. "Anti-acetylcholinesterase, anti-?-glucosidase, anti-leishmanial and anti-fungal activities of chemical constituents of Beilschmiedia species." Fitoterapia. 2012 Mar;83(2):298-302.
    Garcia, M., et al. "New alkaloid antibiotics that target the DNA topoisomerase I of Streptococcus pneumoniae." J Biol Chem. 2011 Feb 25;286(8):6402-13.
    Bluma, R., et al. "Control of Aspergillus section Flavi growth and aflatoxin accumulation by plant essential oils." J. Appl. Microbiol. 2008 Jul; 105(1): 203-14.

    Herbicidal Actions:
    Verdegeur, M., et al. "Herbicidal activity of Peumus boldus and Drimys winterii essential oils from Chile." Molecules. 2011 Jan 10;16(1):403-11.


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