Brazilian Peppertree (Schinus molle) Brazilian Peppertree Extract

Schinus molle

This product is no longer sold by Raintree Nutrition, Inc. See the main product page for more information why. Try doing a google search for products available from other suppliers or see the rainforest products page to find other companies selling rainforest herbal supplements or rainforest plants if you want to make this rainforest formula yourself.

Today, herbalists and natural health practitioners in both North and South America use Brazilian peppertree mostly for colds, flu, and other upper respiratory infections; as a remedy for hypertension and for irregular heartbeat; for fungal infections and Candida; and as a female balancing herb for numerous menstrual disorders.* For more information about Brazilian peppertree (Schinus molle), please refer to the Database File for Brazilian Peppertree in the Tropical Plant Database. More information can also be found in the new Antimicrobial Guide. To see pictures of Brazilian Peppertree, click here.

Traditional Uses:* as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial and antiseptic against bacterial, viral, and fungal infections; for Candida and yeast infections; to tone, balance, and strengthen heart function and as a heart regulator for arrhythmia and mild hypertension; to stop bleeding and heal wounds internally and externally; for mycoplasmal infections

Suggested Use: Take 60 drops (2 ml) of a 1:4 tincture extract 2-3 times daily or as needed. Can also be used externally by applying to the skin twice daily and letting dry completely. As a gargle or mouth rinse, dilute 60 drops (2 ml) in a small amount of warm water and swish in mouth 2-3 times daily. To learn how to make your own extract, please refer to the instrutions on preparing tinctures at Methods for Preparing Herbal Remedies Page.

Contraindications: This plant has been documented with uterine stimulant and uterine antispasmodic actions in animal studies and should therefore not be used in pregnancy.

Drug Interactions: None reported.

Other Observations:

  • This plant has a traditional use in South America for heart problems (hypertension and arrhythmia). Studies with rats and dogs reported a hypotensive effect. People with low blood pressure should be monitored for this possible effect.




Third-Party Published Research*

All available third-party research on Brazilian peppertree can be found at PubMed. A partial listing of the published research on Brazilian peppertree is shown below:

Antimicrobial Actions:
In laboratory tests, the essential oil (as well as leaf and bark extracts) of Brazilian peppertree has demonstrated potent antimicrobial properties. Brazilian peppertree has displayed good-to-very strong in vitro antifungal actions against numerous fungi, as well as Candida. One research group indicated that the antifungal action of the essential oil was more effective than the antifungal drug Multifungin.™ The essential oil and leaves have demonstrated in vitro antibacterial activity against numerous bacterial strains. In 1996, a U.S. patent was awarded for an essential oil preparation of Brazilian peppertree as a topical bactericidal medicine used against Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus for humans and animals, and as an ear, nose, and/or throat preparation against bacteria. Another patent was awarded in 1997 for a similar preparation used as a topical antibacterial wound cleanser. In much earlier in vitro tests, a leaf extract of Brazilian peppertree demonstrated antiviral actions against several plant viruses.
Gomes, F., et al. "Antimicrobial lectin from Schinus terebinthifolius leaf." J Appl Microbiol. 2012 Nov 28.
Rocha, P., et al. "Synergistic Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oil of Aguaribay (Schinus molle L.)." Molecules. 2012 Oct 12;17(10):12023-36.
Montanari, R., et al. "Exposure to Anacardiaceae volatile oils and their constituents induces lipid peroxidation within food-borne bacteria cells." Molecules. 2012 Aug 14;17(8):9728-40
Moura-Costa, G., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of plants used as medicinals on an indigenous reserve in Rio das Cobras, Paraná, Brazil." J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Sep 28;143(2):631-8.
Leite, S., et al. "Randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of the vaginal use of metronidazole with a Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus) extract for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis." Braz J Med Biol Res. 2011 Mar;44(3):245-52
Johann, S., et al. "Antifungal activity of schinol and a new biphenyl compound isolated from Schinus terebinthifolius against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis." Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2010 Oct 12;9:30.
Pereira, E., et al. "In vitro antimicrobial activity of Brazilian medicinal plant extracts against pathogenic microorganisms of interest to dentistry." Planta Med. 2011 Mar;77(4):401-4.
Johann, S., et al. "Antifungal activity of extracts of some plants used in Brazilian traditional medicine against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis." Pharm Biol. 2010 Apr;48(4):388-96.
Johann, S., et al. "Antifungal activity of schinol and a new biphenyl compound isolated from Schinus terebinthifolius against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis" Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2010; 9: 30.
Salazar-Aranda, R., et al. "Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Plants from Northeast of Mexico" Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011; 2011: 536139.
Salazar-Aranda, R., et al. "Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Plants from Northeast of Mexico." Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2009 Sep 21.
El-Massry, K., et al. "Chemical compositions and antioxidant/antimicrobial activities of various samples prepared from Schinus terebinthifolius leaves cultivated in Egypt." J. Agric. Food Chem. 2009 Jun; 57(12): 5265-70.
Hayouni el, A., et al. "Tunisian Salvia officinalis L. and Schinus molle L. essential oils: their chemical compositions and their preservative effects against Salmonella inoculated in minced beef meat." Int. J. Food Microbiol. 2008 Jul; 125(3): 242-51.
Molina-Salinas, G., et al. "Evaluation of the flora of Northern Mexico for in vitro antimicrobial and antituberculosis activity." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Aug 23;
de Lima, M. R., et al. “Anti-bacterial activity of some Brazilian medicinal plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Apr; 105(1-2): 137-47.
Schmourlo, G., et al. “Screening of antifungal agents using ethanol precipitation and bioautography of medicinal and food plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Jan; 96(3): 563-8.
de Carvalho, M. C. “Evaluation of mutagenic activity in an extract of pepper tree stem bark (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi).” Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 2003; 42(3): 185-91.
de Melo, Jr., E. J., et al. “Medicinal plants in the healing of dry socket in rats: Microbiological and microscopic analysis.” Phytomedicine. 2002; 9(2): 109–16.
Quiroga, E. N., et al. “Screening antifungal activities of selected medicinal plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2001; 74(1): 89–96.
Camano, R. “Essential oil composition with bactericide activity.” United States patent 5,635,184; June 3, 1997.
Camano, R. “Method for treating bacterial infections.” United States patent 5,512,284; April 30, 1996.
Martinez, M. J., et al. “Screening of some Cuban medicinal plants for antimicrobial activity.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1996; 52(3): 171–74.
Cuella, M. J., et al. “Two fungal lanostane derivatives as phospholipase A2 inhibitors.” J. Nat. Prod. 1996; 59(10): 977–79.
Gundidza, M., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of essential oil from Schinus molle Linn.” Central African J. Med. 1993; 39(11): 231–34.
Dikshit, A. “Schinus molle: a new source of natural fungitoxicant.” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1986; 51(5): 1085–88.
El-Keltawi, N., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of some Egyptian aromatic plants.” Herba Pol. 1980; 26(4): 245–50.
Ross, S., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of some Egyptian aromatic plants.” Fitoterapia. 1980; 51: 201–5.
Simons, J., et al. “Succulent-type as sources of plant virus inhibitors.” Phytopathology. 1963; 53: 677–83.

Pain-relieving, Antispasmodic, & Anti-inflammatory Actions:
Cavalher-Machado, S., et al. "The anti-allergic activity of the acetate fraction of Schinus terebinthifolius leaves in IgE induced mice paw edema and pleurisy." Int. Immunopharmacol. 2008; 8(11): 1552-60.
Yueqin, Z., et al. “Isolation of two triterpenoids and a biflavanone with anti-Inflammatory activity from Schinus molle fruits.” Planta Med. 2003; 69(10): 893-8.
Bello, R., et al. “In vitro pharmacological evaluation of the dichloromethanol extract from Schinus molle L.” Phytother. Res. 1998; 12(7): 523–25.
Barrachina, M. “Analgesic and central depressor effects of the dichloromethanol extract from Schinus molle L.” Phytother. Res. 1997; 11(4): 317–19.
Jain, M. K., et al. “Specific competitive inhibitor of secreted phospholipase A2 from berries of Schinus terebinthifolius.” Phytochemistry 1995; 39(3): 537–47.
Okuyama, T., et al. “Studies on cancer bio-chemoprevention of natural resources. X. Inhibitory effect of spices on TPA-enhanced 3H-choline incorporation in phospholipid of C3H10T cells and on TPA-induced ear edema.” Zhonghua Yao Xue Zazhi 1995; 47(5): 421–30.
Carneiro, W. M., et al. “Anti-inflammatory and wound healing action of Schinus aroeira Vell in patients with cervicitis and cervico-vaginitis.” Rev. Inst. Antibiot. 1974; 14(1–2): 105–6.

Wound Healing & Antioxidant Actions:
Schmidt, C. et al. "Biological studies on Brazilian plants used in wound healing." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Apr; 122(3): 523-32.
Varela-Barca, F., et al. "Base excision repair pathway is involved in the repair of lesions generated by flavonoid-enriched fractions of pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius, Raddi) stem bark." Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 2007 Oct; 48(8): 672-81.
Coutinho, I., et al. "Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi and it's influence in the healing process of colonic anastomosis: experimental study in rats." Acta Cir. Bras. 2006; 21 Suppl 3: 49-54.
Nunes, J., et al., "Evaluation of the hydro-alcoholic Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Aroeira) extract in the healing process of the alba linea in rats." Acta Cir. Bras. 2006; 21 Suppl 3: 8-15.
Lucena, P., et al. "Evaluation of the aroreira (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) in the healing process of surgical incision in the bladder of rats." Acta. Cir. Bras. 2006; 21 Suppl 2: 44-9.
Santos, O., et al. "Evaluation of the aroeira (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) extract on the healing process of gastroraphy in rats." Acta Cir. Bras. 2006; 21 Suppl 2: 37-43.
Castelo Branco Neto, M., et al. "Evaluation of hydroalcoholic extract of Aroeira (Shinus terebinthifolius Raddi) in the healing process of wound skin in rats." Acta Cir. Bras. 2006; 21 Suppl 2: 15-20.
Marzouk, M., et al. "Antioxidant flavonol glycosides from Schinus molle." Phytother. Res. 2006; 20(3):200-5.

Hypotensive & Cardiotonic Actions:
Ranilla, L., et al. "Phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and in vitro inhibitory potential against key enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia and hypertension of commonly used medicinal plants, herbs and spices in Latin America." Bioresour Technol. 2010 Jun;101(12):4676-89.
Bello, R., et al. “Effects on arterial blood pressure of the methanol and dichloromethanol extracts from Schinus molle L. in rats.” Phytother. Res. 1996; 10(7): 634–35.
Hayashi, T., et al. “Pentagalloylglucose, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor from a Paraguayan crude drug, "Molle-i" (Schinus terebinthifolius).” J. Nat. Prod. 1989 Jan-Feb; 52(1): 210-1.

Cholesterol-Lowering Actions:
Bras, C., et al. "Consequences of subchronic exposure to ethanolic extract from fruits and leaves of Schinus molle var. areira L. in mice." J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Oct 28;132(1):321-7.

Cytotoxic & Anticancerous Actions:
Santana, J., et al. "Essential oils from Schinus terebinthifolius leaves - chemical composition and in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation." Pharm Biol. 2012 Oct;50(10):1248-53.
Matsuo, A., et al. "A-Pinene isolated from Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) induces apoptosis and confers antimetastatic protection in a melanoma model." Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011 Jul 29;411(2):449-54.
Bendaoud, H., et al. "Chemical composition and anticancer and antioxidant activities of Schinus molle L. and Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi berries essential oils." J Food Sci. 2010 Aug 1;75(6):C466-72.
Diaz, C., et al. "Chemical composition of Schinus molle essential oil and its cytotoxic activity on tumour cell lines." Nat. Prod. Res. 2008; 22(17): 1521-34.
Queires, L., et al. "Polyphenols purified from the Brazilian aroeira plant (Schinus terebinthifolius, Raddi) induce apoptotic and autophagic cell death of DU145 cells." Anticancer Res. 2006 Jan-Feb; 26(1A): 379-87.
Ruffa, M. J., et al. “Cytotoxic effect of Argentine medicinal plant extracts on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002; 79(3): 335–39.
Bhakuni, D., et al. “Screening of Chilean plants for anticancer activity. I.” Lloydia 1976; 39(4): 225–43.

Uterine Stimulant Actions:
Zaidi, S., et al. “Some preliminary studies of the pharmacological activities of Schinus molle.” Pak. J. Sci. Ind. Res. 1970; 13: 53.
Moreno, M. S. F. “Action of several popular medicaments on the isolated uterus.” C. R. Seances. Soc. Biol. Ses. Fil. 1922; 87: 563–64.

Antidepressant Actions:
Machado, D., et al. "Antidepressant-like effect of rutin isolated from the ethanolic extract from Schinus molle L. in mice: evidence for the involvement of the serotonergic and noradrenergic systems." Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2008 Jun; 587(1-3): 163-8.
Machado, D., et al. "Antidepressant-like effect of the extract from leaves of Schinus molle L. in mice: Evidence for the involvement of the monoaminergic system." Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry. 2007 Mar; 31(2): 421-8.

Insecticidal & Insect Repellant Actions:
do Nascimento, A., et al. "Essential oil composition and acaricidal activity of Schinus terebinthifolius from Atlantic Forest of Pernambuco, Brazil against Tetranychus urticae." Nat Prod Commun. 2012 Jan;7(1):129-32.
Benzi, V., et al. "Insecticidal and insect-repellent activities of essential oils from Verbenaceae and Anacardiaceae against Rhizopertha dominica." Nat. Prod. Commun. 2009;4 (9): 1287-90.
Abdel-Sattar, E., et al. "Chemical composition, insecticidal and insect repellent activity of Schinus molle L. leaf and fruit essential oils against Trogoderma granarium and Tribolium castaneum." Nat. Prod. Res. 2009 Feb; 25: 1-10.
Ferrero, A., et al. "Repellence and toxicity of Schinus molle extracts on Blattella germanica." Fitoterapia. 2007 Jun; 78(4): 311-4.
Ferrero, A., et al. "Biological activity of Schinus molle on Triatoma infestans." Fitoterapia. 2006 Jul; 77(5): 381-3.
Ruffinengo, S., et al. “LD50 and repellent effects of essential oils from Argentinian wild plant species on Varroa destructor.” J. Econ. Entomol. 2005 Jun; 98(3): 651-5.

Non-Toxic Action:
Carlini, E., et al. "Assessment of the Toxicity of the Brazilian Pepper Trees Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Aroeira-da-praia) and Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão (Aroeira-do-sertão)." Phytother Res. 2012 Jul 4. doi: 10.1002/ptr.4767
Bras, C., et al. "Evaluation of the acute dermal exposure of the ethanolic and hexanic extracts from leaves of Schinus molle var. areira L. in rats." J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Oct 11;137(3):1450-6.
Bras, C., et al. "Consequences of subchronic exposure to ethanolic extract from fruits and leaves of Schinus molle var. areira L. in mice." J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Oct 28;132(1):321-7.
Lima, L., et al. "Acute and subacute toxicity of Schinus terebinthifolius bark extract." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Dec; 126(3): 468-73.
Ferrero, A., et al. "Acute and subacute toxicity evaluation of ethanolic extract from fruits of Schinus molle in rats." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Sep; 113(3): 441-7.



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Last updated 12-31-2012