guacatonga, casearia, sylvestris,leaf, Raintree, natural, remedies, herbs, herbal, treatment, alternative, health, formulas Guacatonga Capsules

Casearia sylvestris

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Guacatonga has a long history of use in Brazilian herbal medicine, documented in early folk medicine books as an antiseptic and wound healer for skin diseases (in 1939), as a topical pain-reliever (in 1941), and as an anti-ulcer drug (in 1958).* It is currently used in Brazilian herbal medicine systems as a blood purifier, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral and as a natural remedy for cancer, rheumatism, syphilis, herpes, stomach and skin ulcers, edema, fevers of all kinds, diarrhea, and as an topical pain-reliever.* For more complete information on this unique rainforest plant, please see plant database file on guacatonga. To see pictures of guacatonga, click here. Check out the new Discussion Forums to see if anyone is talking about how they are using this natural rainforest remedy. More information on guacatonga can also be found the in the new Anti-Cancerous Guide

Traditional Uses:* for cancer (sarcoma, carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma); for stomach disorders (ulcers, acid reflux, indigestion, dyspepsia, stomachache); as an antivenin for snake, spider and bee bites and stings; as a topical analgesic (pain-reliever) and anti-inflammatory for skin diseases, rashes and wounds; as a blood purifier and for general detoxification

Suggested Use: Take 1,000 to 1,500 mgs 2-3 times daily or as directed by a healthcare professional.
Contraindications: Not to be used during pregnancy or while breast-feeding.
Drug Interactions: None reported.
Other Observations: None reported.

Third-Party Published Research*

All available third-party research on guacatonga can be found at PubMed/Medline. A partial listing of the published research on guacatonga is shown below:

Cytotoxic & Anticancerous Actions:
The research on guacatonga's anticancerous properties began in 1988 by Japanese researchers from the Tokyo College of Pharmacy and Pharmacognosy. They published one preliminary trial in 1988 on their discovery of these novel clerodane diterpenes and their anticancerous and antitumorous activities. They named these chemicals casearins. The study indicated that an ethanol extract of the leaf showed strong antitumorous activity in laboratory mice with sarcomas. As soon as they made this discovery, they rushed to patent it, filing a Japanese patent for the casearin chemicals they'd discovered as new antitumorous agents. They published a follow-up study in 1990, again reporting their results from injecting mice with sarcomas with an ethanol extract of guacatonga leaves and confirming their previous findings. They then tested individual casearins against various human cancer cell lines and published two more studies in 1991 and 1992. These studies reported newly isolated casearin chemicals and their antitumorous and anti-cancerous actions against various cancerous tumor cells.
In 2002, a well-known research group in North Carolina discovered three new casearins in the leaves and stems of guacatonga that the Japanese had not (and, obviously, hadn't patented). They named the new chemicals casearvestrin A, B and C, and published their first study in February, 2002, stating: "All three compounds displayed promising bioactivity, both in cytotoxicity assays against a panel of tumor cell lines and in antifungal assays . . ." Their research tested the new plant chemicals against human lung, colon and ovarian tumor cells and indicated all three compounds had toxicity to cancer cells in very small amounts. This research was supported by a grant from the National Cancer Institute, the National Institutes of Health (NCI) and performed by a non-profit biotech company, a large pharmaceutical company and a major university. The NCI has also performed research in-house on clerodane diterpenoids found in another Casearia plant species documenting the antitumor properties of its novel diterpenoids and another university research group has documented the anticancerous properties of this class of chemicals in a Casearia plant from the Madagascar rainforest as well.

Prieto, A., et al. "Assessment of the chemopreventive effect of casearin B, a clerodane diterpene extracted from Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae)." Food Chem Toxicol. 2012 Nov 28.
Ismail, M., et al. "Anticancer properties and phenolic contents of sequentially prepared extracts from different parts of selected medicinal plants indigenous to Malaysia." Molecules. 2012 May 14;17(5):5745-56.
Faiella, L., et al. "A chemical proteomics approach reveals Hsp27 as a target for proapoptotic clerodane diterpenes." Mol Biosyst. 2012 Oct;8(10):2637-44.
Ferreira, P., et al. "Folk uses and pharmacological properties of Casearia sylvestris: a medicinal review." An Acad Bras Cienc. 2011 Dec;83(4):1373-84.
Vieira-Júnior, G., et al. "Cytotoxic clerodane diterpenes from Casearia rupestris." J Nat Prod. 2011 Apr 25;74(4):776-81.
Ferreira, P., et al. "Casearin X exhibits cytotoxic effects in leukemia cells triggered by apoptosis." Chem Biol Interact. 2010 Dec 5;188(3):497-504.
dos Santos, A., et al. "Casearin X, its degradation product and other clerodane diterpenes from leaves of Casearia sylvestris: evaluation of cytotoxicity against normal and tumor human cells." Chem Biodivers. 2010 Jan;7(1):205-15.
Vieira, G., et al. "Cytotoxic clerodane diterpenoids from Casearia obliqua." J Nat Prod. 2009 Oct;72(10):1847-50.
de Oliveira, A., et al. "Ethanolic extract of Casearia sylvestris and its clerodane diterpen (caseargrewiin F) protect against DNA damage at low concentrations and cause DNA damage at high concentrations in mice's blood cells." Mutagenesis. 2009 Nov;24(6):501-6.
de Mesquita, M., et al. "Cytotoxic activity of Brazilian Cerrado plants used in traditional medicine against cancer cell lines." J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Jun 25;123(3):439-45.
Da Silva, S., et al. "Chemotherapeutic potential of two gallic acid derivative compounds from leaves of Casearia sylvestris Sw (Flacourtiaceae)." Eur J Pharmacol. 2009 Apr 17;608(1-3):76-83.
Balunas, M. J., et al. "Relationships between inhibitory activity against a cancer cell line panel, profiles of plants collected, and compound classes isolated in an anticancer drug discovery project." Chem. Biodivers. 2006; 3(8): 897-915.
Shen, Y. C., et al. "Cytotoxic clerodane diterpenoids from Casearia membranacea." J. Nat. Prod. 2005; 68(11): 1665-8.
Maistro, E. L., et al. “Evaluation of the genotoxic potential of the Casearia sylvestris extract on HTC and V79 cells by the comet assay.” Toxicol. In Vitro. 2004 Jun; 18(3): 337-42.
Oberlies, N. H., et al. “Novel bioactive clerodane diterpenoids from the leaves and twigs of Casearia sylvestris.J. Nat. Prod. 2002; 65(2): 95–99.
Sai Prakash, C. V., et al. “Structure and stereochemistry of new cytotoxic clerodane diterpenoids from the bark of Casearia lucida from the Madagascar rainforest.” J. Nat. Prod. 2002; 65(2): 100-7.
Beutler, J. A. “Novel cytotoxic diterpenes from Casearia arborea.” J. Nat. Prod. 2000; 63(5): 657-61.
Almeida, A. “Antitumor and anti-inflammatory effects of extract from Casearia sylvestris: comparative study with Piroxicam and Meloxicam.” Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, University of Sao Paulo (Dissertation, 4/02/99).
Itokawa, H., et al. “Antitumor substances from South American plants.” J. Pharmacobio. Dyn. 1992; 15(1): S-2-.
Morita, H., et al. “Structures and cytotoxic activity relationship of casearins, new clerodane diterpenes from Casearia sylvestris Sw.” Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Tokyo) 1991 Dec; 39(3): 693–97.
Itokawa, H., et al. “New antitumor principles, casearins A–F, for Casearia sylvestris Sw. (Flacourtiaceae).” Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Tokyo) 1990; 38(12): 3384–88.
Itokawa, H., et al. “Isolation of diterpenes as antitumor agents from plants.” Patent—Japan Kokai Tokyo Koho–01 1989; 149, 779: 6pp.
Itokawa, H., et al. “Antitumor principles from Casearia sylvestris Sw. (Flacourtiaceae), structure elucidation of new clerodane diterpenes by 2-D NMR spectroscopy.” Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Tokyo) 1988 March; 36(4): 1585–88.

Antiulcer & Antacid Actions:
Ferreira, P., et al. "Folk uses and pharmacological properties of Casearia sylvestris: a medicinal review." An Acad Bras Cienc. 2011 Dec;83(4):1373-84.
Esteves, I., et al. “Gastric antiulcer and anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oil from Casearia sylvestris Sw.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Oct; 101(1-3): 191-6.
Sertie, J. A., et al. “Antiulcer activity of the crude extract from the leaves of Casearia slyvestris.” Pharmaceutical Biol. 2000; 38(2): 112–19.
Basile, A. C., et al. “Pharmacological assay of Casearia sylvestris. I: Preventive anti-ulcer activity and toxicity of the leaf crude extract.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1990; 30(2): 185–97.

Cellular Protective Actions:
Prieto, Am., et al. "Chemopreventive activity of compounds extracted from Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae) Sw against DNA damage induced by particulate matter emitted by sugarcane burning near Araraquara, Brazil." Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2012 Dec 15;265(3):368-72.
da Silva, A. C., et al. "Inhibition of NTPDase, 5'-nucleotidase, Na+/K+-ATPase and acetylcholinesterase activities by subchronic treatment with Casearia sylvestris." Phytomedicine. 2006; 13(7): 509-14.

Antivenin Actions:
Da Silva, S., et al. "Isolation and characterization of ellagic acid derivatives isolated from Casearia sylvestris SW aqueous extract with anti-PLA(2) activity." Toxicon. 2008 Nov;52(6):655-66.
Cintra-Francischinelli, M., et al. "Antibothropic action of Casearia sylvestris Sw. (Flacourtiaceae) extracts." Phytother Res. 2008 Jun;22(6):784-90.
Cavalcante, W., et al. "Neutralization of snake venom phospholipase A2 toxins by aqueous extract of Casearia sylvestris (Flacourtiaceae) in mouse neuromuscular preparation." J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Jul 25;112(3):490-7.
Raslan, D.S., et al. “Anti-PLA2 action test of Casearia sylvestris Sw.” Boll. Chim. Farm. 2002 Nov-Dec; 141(6): 457-60.
Borges, M., et al. “Neutralization of proteases from Bothrops snake venoms by the aqueous extract from Casearia sylvestris (Flacourtiaceae).” Toxicon 2001; 39(12): 1863–69.
Borges, M., et al. “Effects of aqueous extract of Casearia sylvestris (Flacourtiaceae) on actions of snake and bee venoms and on activity of phospholipases A(2).” Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B. 2000 Sep 1; 127(1): 21–30.
Borges, M., et al. “Partial purification of Casearia sylvestris Sa. extract and its anti-PLA2 Action.” Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Ser. B. 2000; 127b(1): 21–30.
Ruppelt, B. M., et al. “Pharmacological screening of plants recommended by folk medicine as antisnake venom—I. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities.” Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 1991; 86: 203–05.

Anti-inflammatory & Pain-Relieving Actions:
de Mattos, E., et al. "Evaluation of antinociceptive activity of Casearia sylvestris and possible mechanism of action." J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 May 30;112(1):1-6.
Ferreira, P., et al. "Folk uses and pharmacological properties of Casearia sylvestris: a medicinal review." An Acad Bras Cienc. 2011 Dec;83(4):1373-84.
Silva, F.B., et al. “Natural medicaments in endodontics—a comparative study of the anti-inflammatory action.” Pesqui. Odontol. Bras. 2004 Apr-Jun; 18(2): 174-9.
Almeida, A. “Antitumor and anti-inflammatory effects of extract from Casearia sylvestris: comparative study with Piroxicam and Meloxicam.” Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, University of Sao Paulo (Dissertation, 4/02/99).

Antimicrobial, Antimalarial, Antiparasitic, & Insecticidal Actions:
de Mesquita, M. L.,et al. "In vitro antiplasmodial activity of Brazilian Cerrado plants used as traditional remedies." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Mar 1;110(1):
Rodrigues, A. M., et al. "Larvicidal activity of some Cerrado plant extracts against Aedes aegypti." J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 2006 Jun; 22(2): 314-7.
Mesquita, M.L., et al. “Antileishmanial and trypanocidal activity of Brazilian Cerrado plants.” Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 2005 Nov; 100(7): 783-7.
Espindola, L. S., et al. “Trypanocidal activity of a new diterpene from Casearia sylvestris var. lingua.” Planta Med. 2004; 70(11): 1093-5.
de Almeida Alves, T. M. “Biological screening of Brazilian medicinal plants.” Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 2000 May/Jun; 95(3): 367–73.
Chiappeta, A. D., et al. “Higher plants with biological activity—plants of Pernambuco. I.” Rev. Inst. Antibiot. 1983; 21(1/2): 43–50.

Antioxidant Actions:
Prieto, A., et al. "Assessment of the chemopreventive effect of casearin B, a clerodane diterpene extracted from Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae)." Food Chem Toxicol. 2012 Nov 28.

Cholesterol-Lowering Actions:
Schoenfelder, T., et al. "Antihyperlipidemic effect of Casearia sylvestris methanolic extract." Fitoterapia. 2008 Sep;79(6):465-7.

Chemicals Identified:
Wang, W., et al. "A new ent-labdane diterpene glycoside from the leaves of Casearia sylvestris." Nat Prod Commun. 2010 May;5(5):771-4.
Wang, W., et al. "Two new C(13) nor-isoprenoids from the leaves of Casearia sylvestris." Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2009 Jun;57(6):636-8.
Wang, W., et al. "New clerodane diterpenoids from Casearia sylvestris." Fitoterapia. 2009 Oct;80(7):404-7.
Wang, W., et al. "Diterpenoids from Casearia sylvestris." Planta Med. 2009 Oct;75(13):1436-41.
Cavallari, M., et al. "Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers for Casearia sylvestris Sw. (Salicaceae), a neotropical medicinal tree." Mol Ecol Resour. 2008 Jul;8(4):802-804.

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Last updated 12-30-2012