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Species: cajan, flavus
Synonyms: Cajanus bicolor DC., Cajanus flavus DC., Cajanus indicus Spreng., Cytisus cajan L.
Common names: guandu, adhaki, ambrévade, arhar, cachito, caja, chieh tu tzu, chieh tu, chivatillo, Congo-pea, feijao guandu, feijão-guandu, frijol de palo, gandul, guaduli, guandul, guisante-de-Angola, kachang gude, kachang kayu, katjang bali, pigeon-pea, pois d'Angole, pois cajan, puspo-poroto, red gram, sacha poroto, shantouken, Straucherbse, tuver, yellow dhal
Part Used: Leaf, flower, bean/seed
| GUANDU |
| HERBAL PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS |
||Leaves, flowers, seeds
||Infusion: 1 cup twice daily
|| increases urination
Guandu is the Brazilian name for this perennial woody shrub that grows about 4 m high. Its multi-colored flowers range from yellow, red, purple and orange making it a quite pretty blooming shrub. But it is prized for the food it provides. It produces an edible seed pod with 2 to 9 seeds inside which are shelled and widely eated as a food. It is called "pigeon peas" in English speaking tropical countries for its small pea-like seeds. It is believed to originate from tropical India and today it is widely distributed in most tropical countries throughout the world especially South America.
TRIBAL AND HERBAL MEDICINE USES
In Peru, guandu is called caja or puspo-poroto. There the leaves are prepared in a infusion for anemia, hepatitis, diabetes, urinary infections, and yellow fever. The flowers are prepared in an infusion for dysentery, and menstrual disorders; and the seeds are infused to use as a diuretic. In Brazilian herbal medicine, the leaves are infused for coughs, fevers and ulcers; the seeds are prepared in a tea for inflammation and blood disorders; and the flowers are prepared into a tea for upper respiratory infections and pain. In Argentina the leaves are used for genital and other skin irritations and the flowers are used for bronchitis, coughs, and pneumonia.
Chemical analysis reveals guandu contains: 2'-0'methylcajanone, 2'-hydroxygenistein, 5,7,2'-trihydroxyisoflavone, alpha-amyrin, beta-amryin, beta-sitosterol, cajaflavanone, cajaisoflavone, cajanin, cajanone, cajaquinone, concajanin, ferreirin, genistein, isogenistein-7-0-glucoside, lupeol, phenylalanine, stigmasterol
BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND CLINICAL RESEARCH
In several clinical studies scientists have reported that seed extracts of guandu inhibit red blood sickling and may be beneficial for people with sickle cell anemia. Laboratory studies with animals report that the seeds have some anti-nutritional qualities and reported to contain trypsin inhibitors and chymotrypsin inhibitors which reduce or inhibit pancreatic amylase and lipase.
WORLDWIDE ETHNOMEDICAL USES
||for bronchitis, coughs, genital irritation, pneumonia, skin problems|
||for blood disorders, coughs, fevers, inflammation, pain, respiratory infections, sores, ulcers|
||as an antidote, expectorant, sedative, vermifuge, vulnerary; for tumors|
||for bronchitis, colds|
||for chest problems, sores, sore throat, wounds|
|| as an antidote (manihot), gargle, and vulnerary; for jaundice, urticaria, wounds|
||for colic, convulsions, leprosy, tumors(Abdomen)|
||for abdomenal pain, coughs, dermatosis, diarrhea, earache, enteritis, sores|
||as an astringent, diuretic, laxative, vulnerary; for dysentery|
||for anemia, diabetes, dysentery, hepatitis, menstrual disorders, urinary infections, yellow fever; as a diuretic|
||for flu, strokes|
The above text has been authored by Leslie Taylor, copyrighted © 2005 All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, including websites, without written permission.
REFERENCED QUOTES ON GUANDU
"Pigeon peas are popular food in developing tropical countries. Nutritious and wholesome, the green seeds (and pods) serve as vegetable. Ripe seeds are a source of flour, used split (dhal) in soups or eaten with rice. Dhal contains as much as 22% protein, depending on cv and location. Tender leaves are rarely used as a potherb. Ripe seeds may be germinated and eaten as sprouts. Plants produce forage quickly and can be used as a perennial forage crop or used for green manure. Often grown as a shade crop for tree crops or vanilla, a cover crop, or occasionally as a windbreak hedge. In Thailand and N. Bengal, pigeon pea serves as host for the scale insect which produces lac or sticklac. In Malagasy the leaves are used as food for the silkworm. Dried stalks serve for fuel, thatch and basketry. (Duke, 1981a).
Morton (1976) lists many folk medicinal uses for pigeon pea. In India and Java, the young leaves are applied to sores. Indochinese claim that powdered leaves help expel bladderstones. Salted leaf juice is taken for jaundice. In Argentina the leaf decoction is prized for genital and other skin irritations, especially in females. Floral decoctions are used for bronchitis, coughs, and pneumonia. Chinese shops sell dried roots as an alexeritic, anthelminthic, expectorant, sedative, and vulnerary. Leaves are also used for toothache, mouthwash, sore gums, child-delivery, dysentery. Scorched seed, added to coffee, are said to alleviate headache and vertigo. Fresh seeds are said to help incontinence of urine in males, while immature fruits are believed of use in liver and kidney ailments. (Duke, 1981a).
Analysis of dhal (without husk) gave the following values: moisture, 15.2; protein, 22.3; fat (ether extract), 1.7; mineral matter, 3.6; carbohydrate, 57.2; Ca, 9.1; and P, 0.26%; carotene evaluated as vitamin A, 220 IU and vitamin B1, 150 IU per 100 g. Sun-dried seeds of Cajanus cajan are reported to contain (per 100 g) 345 calories, 9.9% moisture, 19.5 g protein, 1.3 g fat, 65.5 g carbohydrate, 1.3 g fiber, 3.8 g ash, 161 mg Ca, 285 mg P, 15.0 mg Fe, 55 mg b-carotene equivalent, 0.72 mg thiamine, 0.14 mg riboflavin, and 2.9 mg niacin. Immature seeds of Cajanus cajan are reported to contain per 100 g, 117 calories, 69.5% moisture, 7.2 g protein, 0.6 g fat, 21.3 g total carbohydrate, 3.3 g fiber, 1.4 g ash, 29 mg Ca, 135 mg P, 1.3 mg Fe, 5 mg Na, 563 mg K, 145 mg b-carotene equivalent, 0.40 mg thiamine, 0.25 mg riboflavin, 2.4 mg niacin, and 26 mg ascorbic acid/100 g. Of the total amino acids, 6.7% is arginine, 1.2% cystine, 3.4% histidine, 3.8% isoleucine, 7.6% leucine, 7.0% lysine, 1.5% methionine, 8.7% phenylalanine, 3.4% threonine, 2.2% tyrosine, 5.0% valine, 9.8 aspartic acid, 19.2% glutamic acid, 6.4% alanine, 3.6% glycine, 4.4% proline, 5.0% serine with 0 values for canavanine, citrulline and homoserine. Methionine, cystine, and tryptophane are the main limiting amino acids. However, in combination with cereals, as pigeon peas are always eaten, this legume contributes to a nutritionally balanced human food. The oil of the seeds contains 5.7% linolenic acid, 51.4% linoleic, 6.3% oleic, and 36.6% saturated fatty acids. Seeds are reported to contain trypsin inhibitors and chymotrypsin inhibitors. Fresh green forage contains 70.4% moisture, 7.1 crude protein, 10.7 crude fiber, 7.9 N-free extract, 1.6 fat, 2.3 ash. The whole plant, dried and ground contains 1,1.2% moisture, 14.8 crude protein, 28.9 crude fiber, 39.9 N-free extract, 1.7 fat, and 3.5 ash. (Duke, 1981a)."
Source: James A. Duke. 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. unpublished. Online at Purdue University
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Last updated 12-17-2012