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(Paullinia cupana)

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Guarana - Paullinia cupana - Guarana - Paullinia cupana - Guarana - Paullinia cupana - Guarana - Paullinia cupana PLANT

Guarana - Paullinia cupana - Guarana - Paullinia cupana - Guarana - Paullinia cupana - Guarana - Paullinia cupana


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  • Family: Sapindaceae
    Genus: Paullinia
    Species: cupana
    Synonyms: Paullinia sorbilis
    Common Names: Guarana, guarana kletterstrauch, guaranastruik, quarana, quarane, cupana, Brazilian cocoa, uabano, uaranzeiro
    Part Used: Seed, fruit

    From The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs:

    Main Actions Other Actions Standard Dosage
  • stimulates
  • relieves pain
  • Seeds
  • increases energy
  • enhances memory
  • Decoction: 1 cup 1-3 times daily
  • dilates blood vessls
  • mildly laxative
  • Tincture: 1-3 ml 2-3 times daily
  • increases urination
  • increases libido
  • Capsules: 1-2 g 2-3 times daily
  • soothes nerves
  • kills bacteria
  • Standardized Extracts:
  • fights free radicals
  • thins blood
  • follow label directions
  • reduces weight

    Guaraná is a creeping shrub native to the Amazon (and particularly the regions of Manaus and Parintins). In the lushness of the Brazilian Amazon where it originates, it often grows to 12 m high. The fruit is small, round, bright-red in color, and grows in clusters. As it ripens, the fruit splits and a black seed emerges - giving it the appearance of an "eye" about which Indians tell legends.


    The uses of this plant by the Amerindians predates the discovery of Brazil. South American Indian tribes (especially the Guaranis, from whence the plant's name is derived) dry and roast the seeds and mix them into a paste with water. They then use it much the same way as chocolate - to prepare various foods, drinks, and medicines. The rainforest tribes have used guaraná mainly as a stimulant and as an astringent (drying agent) for treating chronic diarrhea. It is often taken during periods of fasting to tolerate dietary restrictions better. Botanist James Duke cites past and present tribal uses in the rainforest: as a preventive for arteriosclerosis; as an effective cardiovascular drug; as an pain-reliever, astringent, stimulant, and tonic used to treat diarrhea, hypertension, fever, migraine, neuralgia, and dysentery.

    Over centuries the many benefits of guaraná have been passed on to explorers and settlers. European researchers began studying guaraná (in France and Germany) in the 1940s, finding that Indians' uses to cure fevers, headaches, cramps, and as an energy tonic were well-founded. Guaraná is used and well known for its stimulant and thermogenic action. In the United States today, guaraná is reputed to increase mental alertness, fight fatigue, and increase stamina and physical endurance. Presently, guaraná is taken daily as a health tonic by millions of Brazilians, who believe it helps overcome heat fatigue, combats premature aging, detoxifies the blood, and is useful for intestinal gas, obesity, dyspepsia, fatigue, and arteriosclerosis. The plant, considered an adaptogen, is also used for heart problems, fever, headaches, migraine, neuralgia, and diarrhea. Guaraná has been used in body care products for its tonifying and astringent properties, and to reduce cellulite. Guaraná also has been used as an ingredient in shampoos for oily hair and as a ingredient in hair-loss products. In Peru the seed is used widely for neuralgia, diarrhea, dysentery, fatigue, obesity, cellulite, heart problems, hypertension, migraine, and rheumatism.

    Today the plant is known and used worldwide (and is the main ingredient in the "national beverage" of Brazil: Guaraná Soda!). Eighty percent of the world's commercial production of guaraná paste is in the middle of the Amazon rainforest in northern Brazil-still performed by the Guarani Indians, who wild-harvest the seeds and process them into paste by hand. The Brazilian government has become aware of the importance of the local production of guaraná by traditional methods employed by indigenous inhabitants of the rainforest. Since 1980, FUNAI (the National Indian Foundation) has set up a number of projects to improve the local production of guaraná. Now, under the direction of the FUNAI regional authority in Manaus, many cooperatives in the rainforest support indigenous tribal economies through the harvesting and production of guaraná.


    The first chemical examination of guaraná seeds was performed by the German botanist Theodore von Martius in the 1700s. He isolated a bitter, white crystalline substance with a remarkable physiological action. Von Martius named this substance guaranine, and it was later renamed caffeine. Many today still believe guaranine to be a unique phytochemical in guaraná . It is, however (according to chemists), caffeine. As one group of researchers put it, guaranine is a product of crude laboratory processes and "should be considered non-existent, being in reality impure caffeine." Guaranine is probably just caffeine bound to a tannin or phenol. In living plants, xanthines (such as caffeine) are bound to sugars, phenols, and tannins, and are set free or unbound during the roasting process. Guaraná seeds contain up to 4-8% caffeine (25,000 to 75,000 ppm), as well as trace amounts of theophylline (500 to 750 ppm) and theobromine (300 to 500 ppm). They also contain large quantities of alkaloids, terpenes, tannins, flavonoids, starch, saponins, and resinous substances.

    Caffeine Content Comparison
    Common Beverage Products

    Plant Beverage


    Avg. caffeine in a 6 oz beverage*

    Guaraná seed (Paullinia cupana)


    200–400 mg

    Coffee beans (Coffea sp)


    100–250 mg

    Yerba maté leaves


    50–100 mg

    Black tea (Camellia sinensis)


    10–60 mg

    Chocolate (Cacao seed)


    13 mg

    *Based on quantities used in standard preparation methods

    The xanthine alkaloids (caffeine, theophylline, theobromine) are believed to contribute significantly to guaraná's therapeutic activity. In clinical studies, theophylline stimulates the heart and central nervous system, enhances alertness and alleviates fatigue. It also has strong diuretic activity and reduces constriction of the bronchials, making it useful in asthma. Theobromine has similar effects. Certainly many traditional uses of guaraná may be explained by its caffeine content. Among its many documented effects, caffeine has been shown to facilitate fat loss and reduce fatigue.

    The main chemicals found in guaraná are: adenine, allantoin, alpha-copaene, anethole, caffeine, carvacrol, caryophyllene, catechins, catechutannic acid, choline, dimethylbenzene, dimethylpropylphenol, estragole, glucose, guanine, hypoxanthine, limonene, mucilage, nicotinic acid, proanthocyanidins, protein, resin, salicylic acid, starch, sucrose, tannic acid, tannins, theobromine, theophylline, timbonine, and xanthine.


    Toxicity studies with animals (in 1998) have shown that guaraná is non-toxic, even at high dosages (up to 2 g/kg of body weight). Toxicity has been reported in only one human: a female who had an existing heart condition (mitrial valve prolapse).

    While the Indians have been using guaraná for centuries, Western science has been slowly, but surely, validating that the indigenous uses are well-grounded. In 1989, a U.S. patent was filed on a guaraná seed extract which was capable of inhibiting platelet aggregation (reducing sticky blood). The patent described guaraná's ability to prevent the formation of blood clots and to help in the breakdown of already-formed clots. Clinical evidence was presented in conjunction with the 1989 patent and again in 1991 by a Brazilian research group that reported these antiaggregation properties. Once again, scientific validation is given to a plant used for centuries by the Indians as a heart tonic and to "thin the blood."

    The use of guaraná as an effective energy tonic, for mental acuity, and to enhance long-term memory recently was validated by scientists. In a 1997 in vivo study, guaraná increased physical activity of rats, increased physical endurance under stress, and increased memory with single doses as well as with chronic doses. Interestingly, the study revealed that a whole-seed extract performed more effectively than did a comparable dosage of caffeine or ginseng extract. Another Brazilian research group has been studying guaraná 's apparent effect of increasing memory, thought to be linked to essential oils found in the seed. The plant also was found to enhance memory retention and to have an anti-amnesic activity in mice and rats. A U.S. patent has been filed on a combination of plants (including guaraná) for promoting sustained energy and mental alertness "without nervousness or tension." Guaraná (often in combination with other plants) also has been found to facilitate weight loss, by creating a feeling of fullness and having a mild thermogenic effect.

    Guaraná has traditionally been used for headaches and migraines. A 1997 study found the plant to have pain-relieving activity, which may explain its use for not only headaches but neuralgia, lumbago and rheumatism. More recently (in 2001) a U.S. patent was filed on a combination of plants, including guaraná , to "relieve pain and other symptoms associated with migraines and headaches."

    Guaraná's antibacterial properties against E. coli and Salmonella have been documented as well. Guaraná has also demonstrated antioxidant properties; researchers concluded, "Guaraná showed an antioxidant effect because, even at low concentrations (1.2 mcg/ml), it inhibited the process of lipid peroxidation." In 1998, scientists demonstrated that a guaraná extract significantly increased the blood glucose levels and suppressed exercise-induced hypoglycemia in mice.


    Guaraná's good health benefits and its standing as a natural stimulant, has caused its popularity to grow steadily worldwide. It can be found under many labels and as an ingredient in many herbal formulas, energy drinks, and protein bars. Unfortunately, too many (unethical) manufacturers are simply adding the guaraná name to their labels to capitalize on its popularity - and adding chemical caffeine to their products instead. New, standardized extracts of guaraná are available these days that "guarantee" and "standardize" the extract to the caffeine content. Unfortunately, many of these comprise a seed powder or extract to which caffeine has been added - rather than concentrating the caffeine thru an extraction process of the natural seeds.

    Recently, the Food and Drug Administration published results of their testing of 24 commercial guaraná products sold over the counter. They determined that "results and chromatographic profiles for 14 commercial products in solid dosage form indicate that a number of these products may not contain authentic guaraná as an active ingredient or contain less than the declared quantity of guaraná ." Consumers and manufacturers need be aware of these inconsistencies to deal with reputable suppliers in purchasing guaraná products and supplements. Manufacturers buying guaraná extracts and standardized extracts should demand assays that show not only the caffeine content - but the theobromine and theophylline content as well. This will determine if the actual seed was concentrated into an extract. A good hint is to compare the prices of a supplement and a kilo of guaraná extract-if the extract is less than 3-4 times the cost of natural seed powder, it is likely a natural seed powder with some added caffeine.

    Guaraná Plant Summary
    Main Preparation Method: infusion or capsules

    Main Actions (in order):
    stimulant, antioxidant, memory enhancer, nervine (balances/calms nerves), cardiotonic (tones, balances, strengthens the heart)

    Main Uses:

    1. as a caffeine stimulant for energy
    2. as a weight loss aid (suppresses appetite and increases fat-burning)
    3. for headaches and migraines
    4. to tone, balance, and strengthen the heart, as a blood cleanser, and to reduce/prevent sticky blood and blood clots
    5. as a refrigerant (lowers body temperature) to prevent overheating and heat stroke
    Properties/Actions Documented by Research:
    analgesic (pain-reliever), antibacterial, antioxidant, hyperglycemic, memory enhancer, nervine (balances/calms nerves), neurasthenic (reduces nerve pain), platelet aggregation inhibitor (to prevent clogged arteries), stimulant, vasodilator

    Other Properties/Actions Documented by Traditional Use:
    anticoagulant (blood thinner), antiseptic, aphrodisiac, appetite suppressant, astringent, blood cleanser, cardiotonic (tones, balances, strengthens the heart), carminative (expels gas), central nervous system stimulant, digestive stimulant, diuretic, hypotensive (lowers blood pressure), laxative, menstrual stimulant, thermogenic (increases fat-burning)

    Cautions: Avoid if allergic or sensitive to caffeine.

    Traditional Preparation: One-half to one cup seed infusion 1-3 times daily or 1-3 ml of a 4:1 tincture twice daily; 1-2 g of powdered seed in tablets or capsules (or stirred into water or juice) 1-3 times daily can be substituted, if desired. Therapeutic dosages are reported to be 4-5 g daily. Relatively new to the U.S. market are guaraná extracts that are concentrated and standardized to the caffeine content (between 5% and 15%). Follow the labeled instructions and dosages for these products.

    • Not to be used during pregnancy or while breast-feeding.
    • Guaraná contains caffeine and should not be used by those who are sensitive or allergic to caffeine or xanthines. Excessive consumption of caffeine is contraindicated for persons with high blood pressure, cardiac disorders, diabetes, ulcers, epilepsy, and other disorders.

    Drug Interactions: May potentiate anticoagulant medications such as Warfarin. May have adverse effects (headaches) if used with MAO-inhibitors.

    Amazonia for arteriosclerosis, blood cleansing, cramps, diarrhea, dysentery, dyspepsia, fasting, fatigue, fever, headache, heart support, intestinal gas, malaria, obesity, and as a stimulant, aphrodisiac, and astringent
    Brazil for constipation, convalescence, central nervous system stimulation, depression, diarrhea, digestive problems, dysentery, exhaustion, fasting, fatigue, fever, gastrointestinal problems, headache, heart support, heat stress, intellect, intestinal gas, jet lag, lumbago, malaria, memory enhancement, menstrual problems, migraine, nervous asthenia, nervousness, neuralgia, rheumatism, skin disorders, stress, water retention. weakness, and as an adaptogen, aphrodisiac, antiseptic, appetite suppressant, and stimulant
    Canada for fever, libido enhancement, nervous disorders, and as a stimulant and tonic
    Europe for depression, diarrhea, exhaustion, fatigue, heart support, headache, migraine, nervous disorders, neuralgia, vaginal discharge, water retention, and as a stimulant and tonic
    for diarrhea, fatigue, hangovers, headaches and as a stimulant
    Mexico for diarrhea and as a stimulant
    Peru for cellulite, convalescence, diarrhea, dysentery, fatigue, fever, heart support, hypertension, migraine, nerve support, neuralgia, obesity, paralysis, rheumatism, and as an aphrodisiac, astringent, stimulant, tonic
    for arteriosclerosis, bowel problems, diarrhea, fever, heart support, nerve support, pain, and as an aphrodisiac, stimulant, tonic
    U.S. for appetite suppression, athletic enhancement, concentration, diarrhea, endurance, exhaustion, fatigue, headaches, mental depression or irritation, migraine, nerve support, obesity, PMS, vaginal discharge, water retention, and as an aphrodisiac, stimulant, tonic
    Elsewhere for convalescence, diarrhea, debility, dysentery, headache, lumbago, migraine, nerves, neuralgia, pain, rheumatism, water retention, and as an aphrodisiac, astringent, stimulant, tonic

    The above text has been printed from The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs by Leslie Taylor, copyrighted © 2005
    All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, including websites, without written permission

    † The statements contained herein have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The information contained in this plant database file is intended for education, entertainment and information purposes only. This information is not intended to be used to diagnose, prescribe or replace proper medical care. The plant described herein is not intended to treat, cure, diagnose, mitigate or prevent any disease. Please refer to our Conditions of Use for using this plant database file and web site.

    Published Third-Party Research on Guaraná

    All available third-party research on guaraná can be found at PubMed. A partial listing of the published third party research on guaraná is shown below:

    Stimulant Actions:
    de Oliveira Campos, M., et al. "Guarana (Paullinia cupana) improves fatigue in breast cancer patients undergoing systemic chemotherapy." J Altern Complement Med. 2011 Jun;17(6):505-12.
    Burke, L., et al. "A-Z of nutritional supplements: dietary supplements, sports nutrition foods and ergogenic aids for health and performance--Part 19." Br J Sports Med. 2011 Apr;45(5):456-8.
    da Costa Miranda, V., et al. "Effectiveness of guaraná (Paullinia cupana) for postradiation fatigue and depression: results of a pilot double-blind randomized study." J Altern Complement Med. 2009 Apr;15(4):431-3.
    Roberts, A. T., et al. “The effect of an herbal supplement containing black tea and caffeine on metabolic parameters in humans.” Altern. Med. Rev. 2005 Dec; 10(4): 321-5.
    Berube-Parent, S., et al. “Effects of encapsulated green tea and guarana extracts containing a mixture of epigallocatechin-3-gallate and caffeine on 24 h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in men.” Br. J. Nutr. 2005 Sep; 94(3): 432-6.
    Campos, A. R., et al. “Acute effects of guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) on mouse behaviour in forced swimming and open field tests.” Phytother. Res. 2005; 19(5): 441-3.
    Weckerle, C. S., et al. “Purine alkaloids in Paullinia.” Phytochemistry. 2003 Oct; 64(3): 735-42.
    Lieberman, H. R., et al. “Effects of caffeine, sleep loss, and stress on cognitive performance and mood during U.S. Navy SEAL training." Psychopharmacology. 2002; 164(3): 250–61.
    Espinola, E. B., et al. “Pharmacological activity of guaraná (Paullinia cupana Mart.) in laboratory animals.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1997; 55(3): 223–29.
    Marx, F., et al. “Analysis of guaraná (Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis). Part 1. HPLC determination of caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in guaraná seeds." Dtsch. Lebenstm. Tundsch. 1985; 81(12): 390–92.
    Belliardo, F., et al. “HPLC determination of caffeine and theophylline in Paullinia cupana Kunth (guaraná) and Cola spp. samples.” Z. Lebensm. Unters. Forsch.1985; 180(5): 398–401.

    Anti-obesity Actions:
    Costa Krewer, C., et al. "Habitual Intake of Guaraná and Metabolic Morbidities: An Epidemiological Study of an Elderly Amazonian Population." Phytother Res. 2011 Feb 22.
    Lima, W. P., et al. “Lipid metabolism in trained rats: Effect of guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) supplementation.” Clin. Nutr. 2005 Dec; 24(6): 1019-28.
    Andersen, T., et al. “Weight loss and delayed gastric emptying following a South American herbal preparation in overweight patients.” J. Hum. Nutr. Diet. 2001; 14(3): 243–50.

    Antiaggregation Actions:
    Subbiah, M., et al. "Studies on the nature of anti-platelet aggregatory factors in the seeds of the Amazonian Herb Guarana (Paullinia cupana)." Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2008 Mar;78(2):96-101.
    Bydlowski, S. P., et al. “An aqueous extract of guaraná (Paullinia cupana) decreases platelet thromboxane synthesis.” Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 1991; 24(4): 421–24.
    Bydlowski, S. P., et al. “A novel property of an aqueous guaraná extract (Paullinia cupana): inhibition of platelet aggregation in vitro and in vivo." Braz. J. Med. Biol Res. 1988; 21(3): 535–38.

    Anti-Allery Actions:
    Jippo, T., et al. "Inhibitory effects of guarana seed extract on passive cutaneous anaphylaxis and mast cell degranulation." Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2009 Sep;73(9):2110-2.

    Memory Enhancement Actions:
    Kennedy, D., et al. "Improved cognitive performance and mental fatigue following a multi-vitamin and mineral supplement with added guaraná (Paullinia cupana)." Appetite. 2008 Mar-May;50(2-3):506-13.
    Haskell, C. F., et al. "A double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-dose evaluation of the acute behavioural effects of guarana in humans." J. Psychopharmacol. 2007; 21(1): 65-70.
    Kennedy, D. O., et al. “Improved cognitive performance in human volunteers following administration of guarana (Paullinia cupana) extract: comparison and interaction with Panax ginseng.” Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 2004 Nov; 79(3): 401-11.
    Espinola, E. B., et al. ”Pharmacological activity of Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) in laboratory animals.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1997 Feb; 55(3):223-9.
    Galduróz, J. C., et al. “The effects of long-term administration of guaraná on the cognition of normal, elderly volunteers.” Rev. Paul. Med. 1996; 114(1): 1073–78.
    Benoni, H., et al. “Studies on the essential oil from guaraná.” Z. Lebensm. Unters. Forsch. 1996; 203(1): 95–8.
    Galduróz, J. C., et al. “Acute effects of the Paulinia cupana, ‘guaraná,’ on the cognition of normal volunteers.” Rev. Paul. Med. 1994; 112(3): 607–11.

    Anti-anxiety & Antidepressant Actions:
    Roncon, C., et al. "Anxiolytic effects of a semipurified constituent of guaraná seeds on rats in the elevated T-maze test." Planta Med. 2011 Feb;77(3):236-41.
    Otobone, F., et al. "Effect of lyophilized extracts from guaraná seeds [Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke] on behavioral profiles in rats." Phytother Res. 2007 Jun;21(6):531-5.
    Ernst, E. "Herbal remedies for anxiety - a systematic review of controlled clinical trials." Phytomedicine. 2006 Feb;13(3):205-8.

    Cellular Protective, Adaptogenic, Anti-cancerous, & Antioxidant Actions:
    Bittencourt, L., et al. "The Protective Effects of Guaraná Extract (Paullinia cupana) on Fibroblast Nih-3T3 Cells Exposed to Sodium Nitroprusside." Food Chem Toxicol. 2012 Dec 5.
    Leite, R., et al. "Advantage of Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) Supplementation on Cadmium-induced Damages in Testis of Adult Wistar Rats." Toxicol Pathol. 2012 Jun 1.
    Costa Krewer, C., et al. "Habitual Intake of Guaraná and Metabolic Morbidities: An Epidemiological Study of an Elderly Amazonian Population." Phytother Res. 2011 Feb 22.
    de Oliveira, D., et al. "Paullinia cupana Mart. var. Sorbilis protects human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line against rotenone-induced cytotoxicity." Hum Exp Toxicol. 2011 Sep;30(9):1382-91.
    Fukumasu, H., et al. "Paullinia cupana Mart. var. sorbilis, guarana, increases survival of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) bearing mice by decreasing cyclin-D1 expression and inducing a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in EAC cells." Phytother Res. 2011 Jan;25(1):11-6.
    Leite, R., et al. "Protective effect of Guaraná (Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis) pre-treatment on cadmium-induced damages in adult Wistar testis." Biol Trace Elem Res. 2011 Jun;141(1-3):262-74.
    Fukumasu, H., et al. "Paullinia cupana Mart var. sorbilis, guaraná, reduces cell proliferation and increases apoptosis of B16/F10 melanoma lung metastases in mice." Braz J Med Biol Res. 2008 Apr;41(4):305-10.
    Yamaguti-Sasaki, E., et al. "Antioxidant capacity and in vitro prevention of dental plaque formation by extracts and condensed tannins of Paullinia cupana." Molecules. 2007 Aug 20;12(8):1950-63.
    Freitas, R., et al. "Effect of a commercial extract of Paullinia cupana (guarana) on the binding of 99mTc-DMSA on blood constituents: An in vivo study." Appl Radiat Isot. 2007 May;65(5):528-33.
    Mendes, F. R., et al. "Brazilian plants as possible adaptogens: An ethnopharmacological survey of books edited in Brazil." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Feb; 109(3): 493-500.
    Fukumasu, H., et al. “Protective effects of guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart. var. Sorbilis) against DEN-induced DNA damage on mouse liver.” Food Chem. Toxicol. 2006 Jun; 44(6): 862-7.
    Basile, A., et al. “Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of ethanol extract from Paullinia cupana Mart.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Oct; 102(1): 32-6.
    Fukumasu, H., et al. “Chemopreventive effects of Paullinia cupana Mart var. sorbilis, the guarana, on mouse hepatocarcinogenesis.” Cancer Lett. 2005 May 7;
    Campos, A. R., et al. “Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) offers protection against gastric lesions induced by ethanol and indomethacin in rats.” Phytother. Res. 2003 Dec; 17(10): 1199-202.
    Mattei, R., et al. “Guaraná (Paullinia cupana): Toxic behavioral effects in laboratory animals and antioxidant activity in vitro." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1998; 60(2): 111–16.
    Miura, T., et al. “Effect of guaraná on exercise in normal and epinephrine-induced glycogenolytic mice.” Biol. Pharm. Bull. 1998; 21(6): 646–48.

    Antimicrobial Actions:
    Basile, A., et al. “Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of ethanol extract from Paullinia cupana Mart.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Oct; 102(1): 32-6.
    da Fonseca, C. A., et al. “Genotoxic and mutagenic effects of guaraná (Paullinia cupana) in prokaryotic organisms.” Mutat. Res. 1994; 321(3): 165–73.

    Non-Toxic Effect:
    Antonelli-Ushirobira T., et al. "Acute and subchronic toxicological evaluation of the semipurified extract of seeds of guaraná (Paullinia cupana) in rodents." Food Chem Toxicol. 2010 Jul;48(7):1817-20.

    * The statements contained herein have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The information contained in this plant database file is intended for education, entertainment and information purposes only. This information is not intended to be used to diagnose, prescribe or replace proper medical care. The plant described herein is not intended to treat, cure, diagnose, mitigate or prevent any disease. Please refer to our Conditions of Use for using this plant database file and web site.

    © Copyrighted 1996 to present by Leslie Taylor, Milam County, TX 77857.
    All rights reserved. Please read the Conditions of Use, and Copyright Statement for this web page and web site.
    Last updated 12-17-2012