120 capsules (700 mg each)
This product is no longer sold by Raintree Nutrition, Inc. See the main product page for more information why. Try doing a google search for products available from other suppliers or see the rainforest products page to find other companies selling rainforest herbal supplements or rainforest plants if you want to make this rainforest formula yourself.
A combination of 8 rainforest plants which have been independently documented around the world with anti-leukemic actions* For more information on the individual ingredients in NTENSE-2, follow the links provided below to the plant database files in the Tropical Plant Database. Don't forget to check out the new Discussion Forums to see if anyone is talking about how they are using this natural rainforest remedy or to share your own experience with it. More information can also be found in the new Anti-Cancerous Guide
Ingredients: A herbal blend of mullaca, anamu, vassourinha, simarouba, picão preto, suma, cat's claw, and espinheira santa. To prepare this natural remedy yourself: use one part each of the plants in the list above. To make a small amount... 1 part could be a tablespoon (you'd have 8 tablespoons of the blended herbal formula). For larger amounts use 1 part as one ounce or one cup or one pound. Combine all the herbs together well. The formula can then be stuffed into capsules or brewed into tea, stirred into juice or other liquid, or taken however you'd like.
Suggested Use: Take 2 grams three times daily. (one gram is approximately 1 teaspoon by volume)
Drug Interactions: None reported.
- Not to be used during pregnancy or while breast-feeding.
- Several plants in this formula have demonstrated immunostimulant effects therefore this formula is contraindicated before or following any organ or bone marrow transplant or skin graft.
Third-Party Published Research*
This rainforest formula has not been the subject of any clinical research. A partial listing of
published research on each herbal ingredient in the formula is shown below. Please refer to the plant database files by clicking on the plant names below to see all available documentation and research.
Mullaca (Physalis angulata)
Mullaca has been the subject of recent clinical research which is still ongoing based upon the preliminary studies showing that it is an effective immune stimulant, is cytotoxic to numerous types of cancer and leukemic cells and that it has antiviral properties.* Researchers demonstrated that two chemicals in mullaca inhibited the growth of several human leukemia cells: erythroleukemia, acute T lymphoid leukemia, acute promyelocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, acute monocytic leukemia, and acute B lymphoid leukemia.* In several in vivo animal tests and in vitro lab tests, an extract of the entire plant of mullaca and/or its steroidal fractions demonstrated immune stimulant properties by strongly enhancing blastogenesis, antibody responses and increased T and B lymphocyte production.*
Chiang, H. et al. “Inhibitory effects of physalin B and physalin F on various human leukemia cells in vitro.” Anticancer Res. 1992; 12(4): 1155–62.
Kawai, M., et al. “Cytotoxic activity of physalins and related compounds against HeLa cells [leukemia].” Pharmazie 2002; 57(5): 348–50.
Wu, S., et al. "Physalin F induces cell apoptosis in human renal carcinoma cells by targeting NF-kappaB and generating reactive oxygen species." PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e40727.
Jin, Z., et al. "Physangulidines A, B, and C: three new antiproliferative withanolides from Physalis angulata L."
Org Lett. 2012 Mar 2;14(5):1230-3.
Hsu, C., et al. "Physalin B from Physalis angulata triggers the NOXA-related apoptosis pathway of human melanoma A375 cells." Food Chem Toxicol. 2012 Mar;50(3-4):619-24.
Hseu, Y., et al. "Inhibitory effects of Physalis angulata on tumor metastasis and angiogenesis." J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Jun 1;135(3):762-71.
Lee, H., et al. "Oxidative stress involvement in Physalis angulata-induced apoptosis in human oral cancer cells."
Food Chem Toxicol. 2009 Mar;47(3):561-70.
Lee, S., et al. "Withangulatin I, a new cytotoxic withanolide from Physalis angulata." Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2008 Feb;56(2):234-6.
Damu, A., et al. "Isolation, structures, and structure - cytotoxic activity relationships of withanolides and physalins from Physalis angulata." J Nat Prod. 2007 Jul;70(7):1146-52.
He, Q., et al. "Cytotoxic withanolides from Physalis angulata L." Chem Biodivers. 2007 Mar;4(3):443-9.
Ausseil, F., et al. "High-throughput bioluminescence screening of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway inhibitors from chemical and natural sources." J. Biomol. Screen. 2006 Dec 14;
Kuo, P. C., et al. "Physanolide A, a novel skeleton steroid, and other cytotoxic principles from Physalis angulata." Org. Lett. 2006 Jul; 8(14): 2953-6.
Ichikawa, H., et al. "Withanolides potentiate apoptosis, inhibit invasion, and abolish osteoclastogenesis through suppression of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation and NF-kappaB-regulated gene expression." Mol. Cancer Ther. 2006; 5(6): 1434-45.
Magalhaes, H. I., et al. "In-vitro and in-vivo antitumour activity of physalins B and D from Physalis angulata." J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2006; 58(2): 235-41.
Jacobo-Herrera, N. J., et al. "Physalins from Witheringia solanacea as modulators of the NF-kappaB cascade." J. Nat. Prod. 2006; 69(3): 328-31.
Magalhaes, H. I., et al. "In-vitro and in-vivo antitumour activity of physalins B and D from Physalis angulata." J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2006 Feb; 58(2): 235-41.
Hsieh, W. T., et al. “Physalis angulata induced G2/M phase arrest in human breast cancer cells.” Food Chem Toxicol. 2006; 44(7): 974-83.
Lee, C. C., et al. "Cytotoxicity of plants from Malaysia and Thailand used traditionally to treat cancer." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Sep; 100(3): 237-43.
Wu, S. J., et al. “Antihepatoma activity of Physalis angulata and P. peruviana extracts and their effects on apoptosis in human Hep G2 cells.” Life Sci. 2004 Mar; 74(16): 2061-73.
Leyon, P. V., et al. "Effect of Withania somnifera on B16F-10 melanoma induced metastasis in mice." Phytother. Res. 2004; 18(2): 118-22.
Ismail, N., et al. “A novel cytotoxic flavonoid glycoside from Physalis angulata.” Fitoterapia. 2001 Aug. 72(6):676–79.
Lee, Y. C., et al. “Integrity of intermediate filaments is associated with the development of acquired thermotolerance in 9L rat brain tumor cells.” J. Cell. Biochem. 1995; 57(1): 150–62.
Perng, M. D., et al. “Induction of aggregation and augmentation of protein kinase-mediated phosphorylation of purified vimentin intermediate filaments by withangulatin A.” Mol. Pharmacol. 1994; 46(4): 612–17.
Chiang, H., et al. “Antitumor agent, physalin F from Physalis angulata L.” Anticancer Res. 1992; 12(3): 837–43.
Kusumoto, I., et al. “Inhibitory effect of Indonesian plant extracts on reverse transcriptase of an RNA tumour virus (I).” Phytother. Res. 1992; 6(5): 241–44.
Lee, W. C., et al. “Induction of heat-shock response and alterations of protein phosphorylation by a novel topoisomerase II inhibitor, withangulatin A, in 9L rat brain tumor cells.” Cell Physiol. 1991; 149(1): 66-67.
Chen, C. M., et al. “Withangulatin A, a new withanolide from Physalis angulata.” Heterocycles. 1990; 31(7):1371–75.
Basey, K., et al. “Phygrine, an alkaloid from Physalis species.” Phytochemistry. 1992; 31(12): 4173–76.
Juang, J. K., et al. “A new compound, withangulatin A, promotes type II DNA topoisomerasemediated DNA damage.” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1989; 159(3): 1128–34.
Anon. “Biological assay of antitumor agents from natural products.” Abstr.: Seminar on the Development of Drugs from Medicinal Plants Organized by the Department of Medical Science Department at Thai Farmer Bank, Bangkok, Thailand 1982; 129.
Antoun, M. D., et al. “Potential antitumor agents. XVII. physalin B and 25,26-epidihydrophysalin C from Witheringia coccoloboides.” J. Nat. Prod. 1981; 44(5): 579–85.
Anamu (Petiveria alliacea)
Anamu has demonstrated in vitro antileukemic and antitumorous properties in several studies.* Anamu has also been documented with in vivo and in vitro immunostimulant properties.* In a 1993 study, a water extract demonstrated the ability to stimulate lymphocyte and interleukin II production in mice.* In the same year, another study with mice demonstrated that an anamu extract increased natural killer cell activity by 100% and stimulated interferon, interleukin 2 and interleukin 4 production.*
Mata-Greenwood, E., et al. “Discovery of novel inducers of cellular differentiation using HL-60 promyelocytic [leukemia] cells.” Anticancer Res. 2001; 21(3B): 1763-70.
Williams, L., et al. "Implications of dibenzyl trisulphide for disease treatment based on its mode of action."
West Indian Med J. 2009 Nov;58(5):407-9.
Urueña, C., et al. "Petiveria alliacea extracts uses multiple mechanisms to inhibit growth of human and mouse tumoral cells." BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 2008 Nov 18; 8:60.
Williams, L., et al. "A critical review of the therapeutic potential of dibenzyl trisulphide isolated from Petiveria alliacea L (guinea hen weed, anamu)." West Indian Med. J. 2007 Jan; 56(1): 17-21.
An, H., et al. "Synthesis and anti-tumor evaluation of new trisulfide derivatives." Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2006 Sep; 16(18): 4826-9.
Williams, L. A., et al. "In vitro anti-proliferation/cytotoxic activity of sixty natural products on the human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with specific reference to dibenzyl trisulphide." West Indian Med. J. 2004 Sep; 53(4): 208-19.
Ruffa, M. J., et al. “Cytotoxic effect of Argentine medicinal plant extracts on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002; 79(3): 335-39.
Rosner, H., et al. “Disassembly of microtubules and inhibition of neurite outgrowth, neuroblastoma cell proliferation, and MAP kinase tyrosine dephosphorylation by dibenzyl trisulphide.” Biochem. Biophys. Acta 2001; 1540(2):166-77.
Jovicevic, L., et al. “In vitro antiproliferative activity of Petiveria alliacea L. on several tumor cell lines.” Pharmacol. Res. 1993; 27(1): 105-06.
Rossi, V., et al. “Antiproliferative effects of Petiveria alliacea on several tumor cell lines.” Pharmacol. Res. Suppl. 1990; 22(2): 434.
Yan, R., et al. “Astilbin selectively facilitates the apoptosis of interleukin-2-dependent phytohemaglutinin-activated Jurkat cells.” Pharmacol. Res. 2001; 44(2): 135-39.
Weber, U. S., et al. “Antitumor activities of coumarin, 7-hydroxy-coumarin and its glucuronide in several human tumor cell lines”. Res. Commun. Mol. Pathol. Pharmacol. 1998; 99(2): 193-206.
Bassi, A. M., et al. “Comparative evaluation of cytotoxicity and metabolism of four aldehydes in two hepatoma cell lines.” Drug Chem. Toxicol. 1997 Aug; 20(3): 173-87.
Santander, S., et al. "Immunomodulatory effects of aqueous and organic fractions from Petiveria alliacea on human dendritic cells." Am J Chin Med. 2012;40(4):833-44
Williams, L. "Life's immunity as a normal distribution function: philosophies for the use of dibenzyl trisulphide in immunity enhancement and life extension." West Indian Med J. 2010 Oct;59(5):455.
Queiroz, M. L., et al. “Cytokine profile and natural killer cell activity in Listeria monocytogenes infected mice treated orally with Petiveria alliacea extract. Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. 2000 Aug; 22(3): 501-18.
Quadros, M. R., et al. “Petiveria alliacea L. extract protects mice against Listeria monocytogenes infection—effects on bone marrow progenitor cells.” Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. 1999 Feb; 21(1): 109-24.
Williams, L., et al. “Immunomodulatory activities of Petiveria alliaceae L.” Phytother. Res. 1997; 11(3): 251253.
Rossi, V., “Effects of Petiveria alliacea L. on cell immunity.” Pharmacol. Res. 1993; 27(1): 111-12.
Marini, S., “Effects of Petiveria alliacea L. on cytokine production and natural killer cell activity.” Pharmacol. Res. 1993; 27(1): 107-08.
Vassourinha (Scoparia dulcis)
Vassourinha contains the chemicals scopadulcic acids A and B, scopadiol, scopadulciol, scopadulin, scoparic acids A, B, and C, and betulinic acid.* These chemicals have shown in laboratory tests to have antileukemic and antitumor actions.*
Noda, Y., et al. “Enhanced cytotoxicity of some triterpenes toward leukemia L1210 cells cultured in low pH media; possibility of a new mode of cell killing.” Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1997; 45(10): 1665–70.
Wu, W., et al. "Benzoxazinoids from Scoparia dulcis (sweet broomweed) with antiproliferative activity against the DU-145 human prostate cancer cell line." Phytochemistry. 2012 Nov;83:110-5.
Hayashi, T., et al. "Investigation on traditional medicines of Guarany Indio and studies on diterpenes from Scoparia dulcis." Yakugaku Zasshi. 2011;131(9):1259-69.
Kessler, J. H., et al. "Broad in vitro efficacy of plant-derived betulinic acid against cell lines derived from the most prevalent human cancer types." Cancer Lett. 2006 Dec 12;
Mukherjee, R., et al. "Betulinic acid derivatives as anticancer agents: structure activity relationship." Anticancer Agents Med. Chem. 2006 May; 6(3): 271-9.
Phan, M. G., et al. "Chemical and biological evaluation on scopadulane-type diterpenoids from Scoparia dulcis of Vietnamese origin." Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2006 Apr; 54(4): 546-9.
Hayashi, K., et al. "The role of a HSV thymidine kinase stimulating substance, scopadulciol, in improving the efficacy of cancer gene therapy." J. Gene Med. 2006 Aug; 8(8): 1056-67.
Kasperczyk, H., et al. “Betulinic acid as new activator of NF-kappaB: molecular mechanisms and implications for cancer therapy.” Oncogene. 2005 Oct; 24(46): 6945-56.
Fulda, S., et al. “Sensitization for anticancer drug-induced apoptosis by betulinic acid.” Neoplasia. 2005; 7(2): 162-70.
Garg, A. K., et al. “Chemosensitization and radiosensitization of tumors by plant polyphenols.” Antioxid. Redox. Signal. 2005; 7(11-12): 1630-47.
Wada, S., et al. "Betulinic acid and its derivatives, potent DNA topoisomerase II inhibitors, from the bark of Bischofia javanica." Chem. Biodivers. 2005 May; 2(5): 689-94.
Hayashi, K., et al. “Evaluation of scopadulciol-related molecules for their stimulatory effect on the cytotoxicity of acyclovir and ganciclovir against Herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase gene-transfected HeLa cells.” Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2004; 52(8):1015-7.
Ahsan, M., et al. “Cytotoxic diterpenes from Scoparia dulcis.” J. Nat. Prod. 2003; 66(7): 958-61.
Fulda, S., et al. “Betulinic acid induces apoptosis through a direct effect on mitochondria in neuroecto-dermal tumors.” Med. Pediatr. Oncol. 2000; 35(6): 616–18.
Fulda, S., et al. “Betulinic acid: A new cytotoxic agent against malignant brain-tumor cells.” Int. J. Cancer 1999; 82(3): 435–41.
Arisawa, M. “Cell growth inhibition of KB cells by plant extracts.” Natural Med. 1994; 48(4): 338–47.
Nishino, H. “Antitumor-promoting activity of scopadulcic acid B, isolated from the medicinal plant Scoparia dulcis L." Oncology. 1993; 50(2): 100–3.
Hayashi, T., et al. “Scoparic acid A, a beta-glucuronidase inhibitor from Scoparia dulcis.” J. Nat. Prod. 1992; 55(12): 1748
Hayashi, R. J., et al. “A cytotoxic flavone from Scoparia dulcis L.” Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1988; 36: 4849–51.
Simarouba (Simarouba amara)
Simarouba contains quassinoid chemicals named glaucarubinone, holacanthone, alianthinone, and dehydroglaucarubinone. In laboratory studies from 1977 to present these chemicals are reported with antileukemic and antitumor actions.*
Mata-Greenwood, E., et al. “ Novel esters of glaucarubolone as inducers of terminal differentiation of promyelocytic HL-60 [leukemia] cells and inhibitors of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced preneoplastic lesion formation in mouse
mammary organ culture.” J. Nat. Prod. 2001; 64(12): 1509-13.
Liou, Y. F., et al. "Antitumor agents XLVIII: Structure-activity relationships of quassinoids as in vitro protein synthesis inhibitors of P-388 lymphocytic leukemia tumor cell metabolism." J. Pharm. Sci. 1982 Apr; 71(4): 430-5.
Klocke, J. A., et al. "Growth inhibitory, insecticidal and antifeedant effects of some antileukemic and cytotoxic quassinoids on two species of agricultural pests." Experientia. 1985 Mar 15; 41(3): 379-82.
Reynertson, K., et al. "Induction of murine embryonic stem cell differentiation by medicinal plant extracts."
Exp Cell Res. 2011 Jan 1;317(1):82-93.
de Mesquita, M., et al. "Cytotoxic activity of Brazilian Cerrado plants used in traditional medicine against cancer cell lines." J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Jun 25;123(3):439-45.
Rivero-Cruz, J. F., et al. “Cytotoxic constituents of the twigs of Simarouba glauca collected from a plot in Southern Florida.” Phytother. Res. 2005; 19(2): 136-40.
Morre, D. J., et al. “Mode of action of the anticancer quassinoids--inhibition of the plasma membrane NADH oxidase.” Life Sci. 1998; 63(7) :595-604.
Valeriote, F. A., et al. “Anticancer activity of glaucarubinone analogues.” Oncol Res. 1998; 10(4): 201–8.
Ohno, N., et al. “Synthesis of cytotoxic fluorinated quassinoids.” Bioorg. Med. Chem. 1997; 5(8): 1489-95.
Handa, S. S., et al. “Plant anticancer agents XXV. Constituents of Soulamea soulameoides.” J. Nat. Prod. 1983; 46(3): 359–64.
Polonsky, J. “The isolation and structure of 13,18-dehydroglaucarubinone, a new antineoplastic quassinoid from Simarouba amara.” Experientia. 1978; 34(9): 1122–23.
Ghosh, P. C., et al. “Antitumor plants. IV. Constituents of Simarouba versicolor.” Lloydia. 1977; 40(4): 364–69.
Ogura, M. et al. “Potential anticancer agents VI. Constituents of Ailanthus excelsa (Simaroubaceae)." Lloydia. 1977; 40(6): 579–84.
Picão Preto (Bidens pilosa)
Picão preto first was reported to have antileukemic actions in 1995.* Then researchers from Taiwan reported (in 2001) that a simple hot-water extract of picão preto could inhibit the growth of five strains of human and mouse leukemia at less than 200 mcg per ml in vitro.* They summarized their research by saying that picão preto ". . . may prove to be a useful medicinal plant for treating leukemia." It's antileukemic actions were again reported in another study in 2011.*
Nakama, S., et al. "Anti-adult T-cell leukemia effects of Bidens pilosa." Int J Oncol. 2011 Apr;38(4):1163-73.
Chang, J. S., et al. "Antileukemic activity of Bidens pilosa L. var. minor (Blume) Sherff and Houttuynia cordata Thunb." Am. J. Chin. Med. 2001; 29(2): 303-12.
Wu, J., et al. "Investigation of the extracts from Bidens pilosa Linn. var. radiata Sch. Bip. for antioxidant activities and cytotoxicity against human tumor cells." J Nat Med. 2013 Jan;67(1):17-26.
Kumari, P., et al. "A promising anticancer and antimalarial component from the leaves of Bidens pilosa." Planta Med. 2009 Jan;75(1):59-61.
Kviencinskin, M., et al. "Study of the antitumor potential of Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae) used in Brazilian folk medicine." J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Apr 17;117(1):69-75.
Wu, L., et al. "A novel polyacetylene significantly inhibits angiogenesis and promotes apoptosis in human endothelial cells through activation of the CDK inhibitors and caspase-7." Planta Med. 2007 Jun;73(7):655-61.
Wang, J., et al. "Inhibition of 5 compounds from Bidens bipinnata on leukemia cells in vitro." Zhong Yao Cai. 1997; 20(5): 247-9.
Sundararajan, P., et al. "Studies of anticancer and antipyretic activity of Bidens pilosa whole plant." Afr. Health Sci. 2006 Mar; 6(1): 27-30.
Wu, L. W., et al. “Polyacetylenes function as anti-angiogenic agents.” Pharm. Res. 2004; 21(11): 2112-9.
Gupta, M. P., et al. “Screening of Panamanian medicinal plants for brine shrimp toxicity, crown gall tumor inhibition, cytotoxicity and DNA intercalation.” Int. J. Pharmacog. 1996; 34(1): 19–27.
Alvarez, L., et al. “Bioactive polyacetylenes from Bidens pilosa.” Planta Med. 1996; 62(4): 355–57.
Wat, C. K., et al. “Ultraviolet-mediated cytotoxic activity of phenylheptatriyne from Bidens pilosa L.” J. Nat. Prod. 1979; 42(1): 103–11.
Suma (Pfaffia paniculata)
Suma was reported to inhibit the proliferation of lymphoma and leukemia in mice and, otherwise, delay mortality in research published in 2000.* Other reseach reports suma's anticancerous and antitumorous actions.*
Watanabe, T., et al. “Effects of oral administration of Pfaffia paniculata (Brazilian ginseng) on incidence of spontaneous leukemia in AKR/J mice.” Cancer Detect. Prev. 2000; 24(2): 173–8.
Nakamura, S., et al. "Brazilian natural medicines. IV. New noroleanane-type triterpene and ecdysterone-type sterol glycosides and melanogenesis inhibitors from the roots of Pfaffia glomerata." Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2010 May;58(5):690-5.
da Silva, T., et al. "Pfaffia paniculata (Brazilian ginseng) roots decrease proliferation and increase apoptosis but do not affect cell communication in murine hepatocarcinogenesis." Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2010 Mar;62(2):145-55.
Nagamine, M., et al. "Cytotoxic effects of butanolic extract from Pfaffia paniculata (Brazilian ginseng) on cultured human breast cancer cell line MCF-7." Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2009 Jan;61(1):75-82
Carneiro, C., et al. "Pfaffia paniculata (Brazilian ginseng) methanolic extract reduces angiogenesis in mice."
Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2007 Aug;58(6):427-31.
Pinello, K.C., et al. “Effects of Pfaffia paniculata (Brazilian ginseng) extract on macrophage activity.” Life Sci. 2005 Oct 6;
da Silva, T. C., et al. “Inhibitory effects of Pfaffia paniculata (Brazilian ginseng) on preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions in a mouse hepatocarcinogenesis model.” Cancer Lett. 2005 Aug; 226(2): 107-13.
Matsuzaki, P., et al. “Antineoplastic effects of butanolic residue of Pfaffia paniculata.” Cancer Lett. 2006 Jul; 238(1): 85-9.
Matsuzaki, P., et al. “Effect of Pfaffia paniculata (Brazilian ginseng) on the Ehrlich tumor in its ascitic form.” Life Sci. 2003 Dec; 74(5): 573-9.
Cat’s Claw (Uncaria tomentosa)
Cat's claw, in addition to its well documented immunostimulant actions, has been shown in laboratory research to possess antileukemic actions in fours studies published to date. Other research documents cat's claw's other anti-cancerous actions.*
Pilarski, R., et al. "Antiproliferative activity of various Uncaria tomentosa preparations on HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells." Pharmacol. Rep. 2007 Sep-Oct; 59(5): 565-72.
Chen, A., et al. "Induction of apoptosis by Uncaria tomentosa through reactive oxygen species production, cytochrome c release, and caspases activation in human leukemia cells." Food Chem. Toxicol. 2007; 45(11): 2206-18.
Bacher, N., et al. "Oxindole alkaloids from Uncaria tomentosa induce apoptosis in proliferating, G0/G1-arrested and bcl-2-expressing acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cells." Br. J. Haematol. 2006 Mar; 132(5): 615-22.
Stuppner, H., et al. "A differential sensitivity of oxindole alkaloids to normal and leukemic cell lines." Planta Med. (1993 suppl.); 59: A583.
Santos Araújo Mdo, C., et al. "Uncaria tomentosa-Adjuvant Treatment for Breast Cancer: Clinical Trial." Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:676984.
Farias, I., et al. "Uncaria tomentosa for Reducing Side Effects Caused by Chemotherapy in CRC Patients: Clinical Trial." Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:892182.
Anter, J., et al.. "Antigenotoxicity, cytotoxicity, and apoptosis induction by apigenin, bisabolol, and protocatechuic acid." J Med Food. 2011 Mar;14(3):276-83.
Gurrola-Díaz, C., et al. "Inhibitory mechanisms of two Uncaria tomentosa extracts affecting the Wnt-signaling pathway." Phytomedicine. 2011 Jun 15;18(8-9):683-90.
Pilarski, R., et al. "Anticancer activity of the Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. preparations with different oxindole alkaloid composition." Phytomedicine. 2010 Dec 1;17(14):1133-9.
Dreifuss, A., et al. "Antitumoral and antioxidant effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa) (Willd. Ex Roem. & Schult) in an in vivo carcinosarcoma model." J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Jul 6;130(1):127-33
García Giménez, D., et al. "Cytotoxic effect of the pentacyclic oxindole alkaloid mitraphylline isolated from Uncaria tomentosa bark on human ewing's sarcoma and breast cancer cell lines." Planta Med. 2010 Feb; 76(2):133-6.
Rinner, B., et al. "Antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of Uncaria tomentosa in human medullary thyroid carcinoma cells." Anticancer Res. 2009; 29(11): 4519-28.
Erowele, G., et al. "Pharmacology and therapeutic uses of cat's claw." Am. J. Health Syst. Pharm. 2009 Jun 1; 66(11): 992-5.
García Prado, E., et al. "Antiproliferative effects of mitraphylline, a pentacyclic oxindole alkaloid of Uncaria tomentosa on human glioma and neuroblastoma cell lines." Phytomedicine. 2007; 14(4): 280-4.
Gonzales, G.F., et al. "Medicinal plants from Peru: a review of plants as potential agents against cancer." Anticancer Agents Med. Chem. 2006 Sep; 6(5): 429-44.
De Martino, L., et al. "Proapoptotic effect of Uncaria tomentosa extracts." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Aug; 107(1): 91-4.
Riva, L., et al. “The antiproliferative effects of Uncaria tomentosa extracts and fractions on the growth of breast cancer cell line." Anticancer Res. 2001; 21(4A): 2457–61.
Muhammad, I., et al. “Investigation of Una de Gato I. 7-Deoxyloganic acid and 15N NMR spectroscopic studies on pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids from Uncaria tomentosa." Phytochemistry. 2001; 57(5): 781–5.
Sheng, Y., et al. “Induction of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation in human tumor cells treated with extracts of Uncaria tomentosa." Anticancer Res. 1998; 18(5A): 3363–68.
Salazar, E. L., et al. “Depletion of specific binding sites for estrogen receptor by Uncaria tomentosa." Proc. West. Pharmacol. Soc. 1998; 41(1): 123–124.
Espinheira Santa (Maytenus ilicifolia)
Espinheira santa contains a group of chemicals called maytansinoids which have showed potent anti-tumor and antileukemic activities at very low dosages.* Other triterpene compounds in the plant, including maytanprine and pristimerin, have shown in laboratory studies to possess anti-cancerous activity against various leukemia and tumor cells.*
Lu, Z., et al. "Pristimerin induces apoptosis in imatinib-resistant chronic myelogenous leukemia cells harboring T315I mutation by blocking NF-kappaB signaling and depleting Bcr-Abl." Mol Cancer. 2010 May 19;9:112.
Costa, P., et al. "Antiproliferative activity of pristimerin isolated from Maytenus ilicifolia (Celastraceae) in human HL-60 [leukemia] cells." Toxicol In Vitro. 2008 Jun;22(4):854-63.
Nakao, H., et al. "Cytotoxic activity of maytanprine isolated from Maytenus diversifolia in human leukemia K562 cells." Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2004; 27(8): 1236-40.
Tiedemann, R., et al. "Identification of a potent natural triterpenoid inhibitor of proteosome chymotrypsin-like activity and NF-kappaB with antimyeloma activity in vitro and in vivo." Blood. 2009 Apr 23;113(17):4027-37.
Wang, Y., et al. "Pristimerin causes G1 arrest, induces apoptosis, and enhances the chemosensitivity to gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer cells." PLoS One. 2012;7(8):e43826.
Mu, X., et al. "Pristimerin inhibits breast cancer cell migration by up- regulating regulator of G protein signaling 4 expression." Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012;13(4):1097-104.
Mu, X., et al. "Pristimerin, a triterpenoid, inhibits tumor angiogenesis by targeting VEGFR2 activation."
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