Amazon A-V Topical Amazon
A - V Topical


2 fluid ounces (60 ml)

This product is no longer sold by Raintree Nutrition, Inc. See the main product page for more information why. Try doing a google search or see the rainforest products page to find other companies selling rainforest herbal supplements or rainforest plants if you want to make this rainforest formula yourself.

A synergistic formula of powerful rainforest botanicals which are used by the Indian shamans and herbal healers in South America for skin viruses like herpes, cold sores, and warts.* For more information on the individual ingredients in Amazon A-V Topical, follow the links provided below to the plant database files in the Tropical Plant Database. More information can also be found in the new Antimicrobial Guide.

Ingredients: A herbal blend of sangre de grado resin, bitter melon, clavillia, mullaca, macela, copaiba oil, ubos, chanca piedra, vassourinha, and carqueja extracted in water & alcohol. To prepare this natural remedy yourself: combine equal parts of bitter melon, clavillia, mullaca, macela, ubos, chanca piedra, vassourinha, and carqueja and make a tincture following the instructions on the Methods of Preparing Herbal Remedies page. To make a small amount... 1 part could be a tablespoon (you'd have 8 tablespoon of the blended herbal formula). Once the tincture is finished, measure it. For every 4 parts of the finished tincture, add two part sangre de grado resin and one part copaiba oil. Mix together and bottle it in a dark glass bottle (it will naturally separate... just shake well before using).

Suggested Use: Shake well and apply directly on the skin several times daily. Allow to dry completely before covering with clothing.

Contraindications: None reported

Drug Interactions: None known.

Other Observations: This extract will stain clothing and other textiles.





Third-Party Published Research*

This rainforest formula has not been the subject of any clinical research. A partial listing of published research on each herbal ingredient in the formula is shown below. Please refer to the plant database files by clicking on the plant names below to see all available documentation and research.

Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia)
Bitter melon (and several of its plant chemicals) have been documented with in vitro antiviral activity against numerous viruses, including Epstein-Barr, herpes, and HIV viruses. In an in vivo study, a leaf extract increased resistance to viral infections and had an immunostimulant effect in humans and animals.*
Zhu, F., et al. "Alpha-momorcharin, a RIP produced by bitter melon, enhances defense response in tobacco plants against diverse plant viruses and shows antifungal activity in vitro." Planta. 2012 Sep 16.
Santos, K., et al. "Trypanocide, cytotoxic, and antifungal activities of Momordica charantia. Pharm Biol. 2012 Feb;50(2):162-6.
Feng, E., et al. "Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is a cornucopia of health: a review of its credited antidiabetic, anti-HIV, and antitumor properties." Curr Mol Med. 2011 Jul;11(5):417-36. Review.
Mahomoodally, M., et al. "Screening for alternative antibiotics: an investigation into the antimicrobial activities of medicinal food plants of Mauritius." J Food Sci. 2010 Apr;75(3):M173-7.
Gupta, S., et al. "Momordicatin purified from fruits of Momordica charantia is effective to act as a potent antileishmania agent." Parasitol Int. 2010 Jun;59(2):192-7.
Puri, M., et al. "Ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs) from Momordica charantia for anti viral therapy." Curr. Mol. Med. 2009 Dec; 9(9): 1080-94.
Coutinho, H., et al. "Effect of Momordica charantia L. in the resistance to aminoglycosides in methicilin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus." Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 2009 Sep 2.
Braca, A., et al. "Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Momordica charantia seed essential oil." Fitoterapia. 2008; 79(2): 123-5.
Fan, J., et al. "Inhibition on Hepatitis B virus in vitro of recombinant MAP30 from bitter melon." Mol. Biol. Rep. 2009; 36(2): 381-8.
Vashishta, A., et al. "In vitro refolded napin-like protein of Momordica charantia expressed in Escherichia coli displays properties of native napin." Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 2006; 1764(5): 847-55.
Das, P., et al. "Screening of antihelminthic effects of Indian plant extracts: a preliminary report." J. Altern. Complement. Med. 2006 Apr; 12(3): 299-301.
Schmourlo, G., et al. “Screening of antifungal agents using ethanol precipitation and bioautography of medicinal and food plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Jan; 96(3): 563
Jiratchariyakul, W., et al. "HIV inhibitor from Thai bitter gourd." Planta Med. 2001 Jun; 67(4): 350-3.
Zheng, Y. T., et al. “Alpha-momorcharin inhibits HIV-1 replication in acutely but not chronically infected T-lymphocytes.” Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1999; 20(3): 239-43.
Frame, A. D., et al. “Plants from Puerto Rico with anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis properties.” P. R. Health Sci. J. 1998; 17(3): 243–52.
Khan, M. R., et al. “Momordica charantia and Allium sativum: Broad spectrum antibacterial activity.” Korean J. Pharmacog. 1998; 29(3): 155–58.
Bourinbaiar, A. S., et al. “The activity of plant-derived antiretroviral proteins MAP30 and GAP31 against Herpes simplex virus in vitro.” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1996; 219(3): 923–29.
Omoregbe, R. E., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants’ extracts on Escherichia coli,Salmonella paratyphi and Shigella dysenteriae.” Afr. J. Med. Med. Sci. 1996; 25(4): 373–75.
Lee-Huang, S., et al. “Inhibition of the integrase of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 by anti-HIV plant proteins MAP30 and GAP31.” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 1995; 92(19): 8818–22.
Dong, T. X., et al. “Ribosome inactivating protein-like activity in seeds of diverse Cucurbitaceae plants.” Indian J. Exp. Biol. 1993; 25(3): 415–19.
Zhang, Q. C. “Preliminary report on the use of Momordica charantia extract by HIV patients.” J. Naturopath. Med. 1992; 3: 65–9.
Hussain, H. S. N., et al. “Plants in Kano ethomedicine: Screening for antimicrobial activity and alkaloids.” Int. J. Pharmacog. 1991; 29(1): 51–6.
Huang, T. M., et al. “Studies on antiviral activity of the extract of Momordica charantia and its active principle.” Virologica. 1990; 5(4): 367–73.
Lee-Huang, S. “MAP 30: A new inhibitor of HIV-1 infection and replication.” FEBS Lett. 1990; 272(1–2): 12–18.
Takemoto, D. J. “Purification and characterization of a cytostatic factor with anti-viral activity from the bitter melon.” Prep. Biochem. 1983; 13(4): 371–93.
Takemoto, D. J., et al. “Purification and characterization of a cytostatic factor from the bitter melon Momordica charantia.Prep. Biochem. 1982; 12(4): 355-75.

Clavillia (Mirabilis jalapa)
Clavillia contains a group of amino acid-based proteins, called mirabilis antiviral proteins (MAPs). These chemicals have demonstrated antiviral actions in numerous tests and have been patented as antiviral agents.*
Michalet, S., "N-caffeoylphenalkylamide derivatives as bacterial efflux pump inhibitors." Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2007 Mar; 17(6): 1755-8.
Bolognesi, A. et al. “Ribosome-inactivating and adenine polynucleotide glycosylase activities in Mirabilis jalapa L. tissues.” J. Biol. Chem. 2002; 277(16) 13709–16.
Yang, S. W., et al. “Three new phenolic compounds from a manipulated plant cell culture, Mirabilis jalapa.” J. Nat. Prod. 2001; 64(3): 313–17.
Vivanco, J. M., et al. “Characterization of two novel type 1 ribosome-inactivating proteins from the storage roots of the Andean crop Mirabilis expansa.” Plant Physiol. 1999; 119(4): 1447–56.
Dimayuga, R. E., et al. ”Antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants from Baja California Sur (Mexico).” Pharmaceutical Biol. 1998; 36(1): 33–43.
De Bolle, M. F., et al. “Antimicrobial peptides from Mirabilis jalapa and Amarantus caudatus: expression, processing, localization and biological activity in transgenic tobacco.” Plant Mol. Biol. 1996; 31(5): 993–1008.
Kataoka, J., et al. “Adenine depurination and inactivation of plant ribosomes by an antiviral protein of Mirabilis jalapa (MAP).” Plant Mol. Biol. 1992; 20(6): 111–19.
Wong, R. N., et al. “Characterization of Mirabilis antiviral protein—a ribosome inactivating protein from Mirabilis jalapa L.” Biochem. Int. 1992; 28(4): 585–93.
Cammue, B. P., et al. “Isolation and characterization of a novel class of plant antimicrobial peptides from Mirabilis jalapa L. seeds.” J. Biol. Chem. 1992; 267(4): 2228–33.
Caceres, A., et al. “Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. Screening for antimycotic activity of 44 plant extracts.” J. Ethnophamacol. 1991; 31(3): 263–76.
Kusamba, C., et al. “Antibacterial activity of Mirabilis jalapa seed powder.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1991; 35(2): 197–99.
Caceres, A., et al. “Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1987; 20(3): 223–37.

Mullaca (Physalis angulata)
Mullaca has been demonstrated in laboratory tests to possess reverse transcriptase inhibitory effects. Other research reports antiviral actions against polio virus I, herpes simplex virus I, the measles virus, and HIV-1.*
Michalet, S., "N-caffeoylphenalkylamide derivatives as bacterial efflux pump inhibitors." Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2007 Mar; 17(6): 1755-8.
Bolognesi, A. et al. “Ribosome-inactivating and adenine polynucleotide glycosylase activities in Mirabilis jalapa L. tissues.” J. Biol. Chem. 2002; 277(16) 13709–16.
Yang, S. W., et al. “Three new phenolic compounds from a manipulated plant cell culture, Mirabilis jalapa.” J. Nat. Prod. 2001; 64(3): 313–17.
Vivanco, J. M., et al. “Characterization of two novel type 1 ribosome-inactivating proteins from the storage roots of the Andean crop Mirabilis expansa.” Plant Physiol. 1999; 119(4): 1447–56.
Dimayuga, R. E., et al. ”Antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants from Baja California Sur (Mexico).” Pharmaceutical Biol. 1998; 36(1): 33–43.
De Bolle, M. F., et al. “Antimicrobial peptides from Mirabilis jalapa and Amarantus caudatus: expression, processing, localization and biological activity in transgenic tobacco.” Plant Mol. Biol. 1996; 31(5): 993–1008.
Kataoka, J., et al. “Adenine depurination and inactivation of plant ribosomes by an antiviral protein of Mirabilis jalapa (MAP).” Plant Mol. Biol. 1992; 20(6): 111–19.
Wong, R. N., et al. “Characterization of Mirabilis antiviral protein—a ribosome inactivating protein from Mirabilis jalapa L.” Biochem. Int. 1992; 28(4): 585–93.
Cammue, B. P., et al. “Isolation and characterization of a novel class of plant antimicrobial peptides from Mirabilis jalapa L. seeds.” J. Biol. Chem. 1992; 267(4): 2228–33.
Caceres, A., et al. “Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. Screening for antimycotic activity of 44 plant extracts.” J. Ethnophamacol. 1991; 31(3): 263–76.
Kusamba, C., et al. “Antibacterial activity of Mirabilis jalapa seed powder.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1991; 35(2): 197–99.
Caceres, A., et al. “Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1987; 20(3): 223–37.

Macela (Achyrocline satureoides)
Macela has been reported by two separate research groups with antiviral actions; HIV and pseudorabies were the viruses it was tested against.*
Casero, C., et al. "Achyrofuran is an antibacterial agent capable of killing methicillin-resistant vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus in the nanomolar range." Phytomedicine. 2012 Dec 4. doi:pii: S0944-7113(12)00406-0.
Joray, M., et al. "Understanding the interactions between metabolites isolated from Achyrocline satureioides in relation to its antibacterial activity." Phytomedicine. 2012 Nov 30. doi:pii: S0944-7113(12)00381-9
Joray, M., et al. "Antibacterial activity of extracts from plants of central Argentina--isolation of an active principle from Achyrocline satureioides." Planta Med. 2011 Jan;77(1):95-100.
Sabini, M., et al. "Evaluation of antiviral activity of aqueous extracts from Achyrocline satureioides against Western equine encephalitis virus." Nat Prod Res. 2012;26(5):405-15.
Gonzales, M., et al. "Antibacterial activity of water extracts and essential oils of various aromatic plants against Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American Foulbrood." J Invertebr Pathol. 2010 Jul;104(3):209-13.
Vogt, V., et al. "Fungitoxic effects of Achyrocline satureioides (marcela) on plant pathogens." IDECEFYN vol 21 January-April 2010, 109-112
Bueno-Sánchez J., et al. "Anti-tubercular activity of eleven aromatic and medicinal plants occurring in Colombia." Biomedica. 2009 Mar;29(1):51-60.
Brandelli, C., et al. "Indigenous traditional medicine: in vitro anti-giardial activity of plants used in the treatment of diarrhea." Parasitol Res. 2009 Jun;104(6):1345-9.
Calvo, D., et al. "Achyrocline satureioides (LAM.) DC (Marcela): antimicrobial activity on Staphylococcus spp. and immunomodulating effects on human lymphocytes." Rev Latinoam Microbiol. 2006 Jul-Dec;48(3-4):247-55.
Bettega, J. M., et al. “Evaluation of the antiherpetic activity of standardized extracts of Achyrocline satureioides. Phytother. Res. 2004; 18(10): 819-23.
Zanon, S. M., et al. “Search for antiviral activity of certain medicinal plants from Cordoba, Argentina.” Rev. Latinoamer. Microbiol. 1999; 41(2): 59–62.
Abdel-Malek, S., et al. “Drug leads from the Kallawaya herbalists of Bolivia. 1. Background, rationale, protocol and anti-HIV activity.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1996; 50: 157–22.
Anesini, C., et al. “Screening of plants used in Argentine folk medicine for antimicrobial activity.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1993; 39(2): 119–28.
Vargas, V., et al. “Genotoxicity of plant extracts.” Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 1991; 86(11): 67–70.
Vargas, V., et al. “Mutagenic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of Achyrocline satureoides in prokaryotic organisms.” Mutat. Res. 1990; 240(1): 13–18.
de Souza, C. P., et al. “Chemoprophylaxis of schistosomiasis: molluscicidal activity of natural products.” An. Acad. Brasil. Cienc. 1984; 56(3): 333–38.

Ubos (Spondias mombin)
Ubos has demonstrated antiviral actions against Herpes, HIV, cocksacie, poliovirus, and rotoviruses in laboratory studies.* It has also been shown to inhibit reverse transcriptase—a chemical required by many viruses to replicate.*
da Silva, A., et al. "Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of two Spondias species from Northeastern Brazil." Pharm Biol. 2012 Jun;50(6):740-6.
Amadi, E., et al. "Studies on the antimicrobial effects of Spondias mombin and Baphia nittida on dental caries organism." Pak J Biol Sci. 2007 Feb 1;10(3):393-7.
Calderon, A., et al. "Forest plot as a tool to demonstrate the pharmaceutical potential of plants in a tropical forest of Panama." Econ. Bot. 2000; 54(3): 278-294.
Kramer, A., et al. "Ethnobotany and biological activity of plants utilized during pregnancy and childbirth in the Peruvian Amazon." Emanations from the Rainforest and the Carribean Vol. 4 Sept. 2002, Cornell University.
Flood, K., et al. "Phytochemical analysis of Cedrela odorata and Spondias mombin, two dietary sources of Callithrix pygmea on the Yarapa river in the Amazon basin of Peru." Emanations from the Rainforest and the Carribean Vol. 4 Sept. 2002, Cornell University.
Ajao, A., et al. "Antibacterial effect of aqueous and alcohol extracts of Spondias mombin, and Alchornea cordifolia - two local antimicrobial remedies." Int. J. Crude Drug Res. 1985; 23(2): 67-72.
Abo, K., et al. "Antimicrobial potential of Spondias mombin, Croton zambesicus and Zygotritonia crocea." Phytother. Res. 1999; 13(6): 494-497.
Corthout, J., et al. "Antivirally active substances from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae)." Abstr. Internat. Res. Cong. Nat. Prod. Coll Pharm. Univ. July 7-12 1985 Abstr. - 53. N. Carolina University, Chapel Hill, NC
Corthout, J., et al. "Antivirally active substances from Spondias mombin L." Pharm. Weekbl. 1987; 9(4): 222.
Goncalves, J., et al. "In vitro anti-rotavirus activity of some medicinal plants used in Brazil against diarrhea." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Jul; 99(3): 403-7.
Corthout, J. et al. "Antiviral caffeoyl esters from Spondias mombin." Phytochemistry 1992; 31(6): 1979-1981.
Ramirez, V., et al., "Vegetales empleados en medicina tradicional Norperuana." Banco Agrario Del Peru & Nacl Univ Trujillo, Trujillo, Peru, June, 1988 Page 54.
Coates, N., et al. "SB-202742, A novel beta-lactamase inhibitor isolated from Spondias mombin." J. Nat. Prod. 1994; 57(5): 654-657.

Carqueja (Baccharis genistelloides)
Carqueja showed in vitro antiviral actions against Herpes simplex I and Vesicular stomatitis viruses at low dosages in laboratory research. Researchers in Texas published that a water extract of carqueja provided an in vitro inhibition of HIV virus replication in T-cells. In subsequent research, they've attributed this anti-HIV effect to a single chemical they found in the water extract of carqueja called 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and reported that this plant chemical is a potent inhibitor of HIV at dosages as low as only 1 mcg/ml. See page B-15 for more information on carqueja.*
Samy, R., et al. "Therapeutic Potential of Plants as Anti-microbials for Drug Discovery." Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2010 September; 7(3): 283–294
Morales, G., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of three Baccharis species used in the traditional medicine of Northern Chile." Molecules. 2008; 13(4): 790-4.
Betoni, J., et al. "Synergism between plant extract and antimicrobial drugs used on Staphylococcus aureus diseases." Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 2006 Jun; 101(4): 387-90.
Sanchez Palomino, S., et al. “Screening of South American plants against human immunodeficiency virus: preliminary fractionation of aqueous extract from Baccharis trinervis.Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2002; 25(9):1147-50.
Abad, M. J., et al. “Antiviral activity of Bolivian plant extracts.” Gen. Pharmacol. 1999; 32(4): 499–503.
Abad, M. J., et al. “Antiviral activity of some South American medicinal plants.” Phytother. Res. 1999 Mar; 13(2): 142-6.
Robinson, W. E., et al. “Inhibitors of HIV-1 replication that inhibit HIV Integrase.” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 1996; 93(13): 6326–31.
Abdel-Malek, S., et al. “Drug leads from the Kallawaya herbalists of Bolivia. 1. Background, rationale, protocol and anti-HIV activity.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1996; 50(3): 157–66.

Vassourinha (Scoparia dulcis)
Vassourinha contains scopadulcic acid B, scopadulin, and betulinic acid which have demonstrated strong antiviral properties at low dosages in several studies (including against Herpes simplex I in animal studies).*
Dos Santos, E., et al. "Bioactivity Evaluation of Plant Extracts Used in Indigenous Medicine against the Snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, and the Larvae of Aedes aegypti." Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:846583.
Hayashi, T., et al. "Investigation on traditional medicines of Guarany Indio and studies on diterpenes from Scoparia dulcis." Yakugaku Zasshi. 2011;131(9):1259-69.
Ruiz, L., et al. "Plants used by native Amazonian groups from the Nanay River (Peru) for the treatment of malaria." J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Jan 27;133(2):917-21.
Gachet, M., et al. "Assessment of anti-protozoal activity of plants traditionally used in Ecuador in the treatment of leishmaniasis." J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Mar 2;128(1):184-97.
Hayashi, T., et al. "[Studies on evaluation of natural products for antiviral effects and their applications]." Yakugaku Zasshi. 2008 Jan;128(1):61-79.
Latha, M., et al. "Phytochemical and antimicrobial study of an antidiabetic plant: Scoparia dulcis L." J. Med. Food. 2006 Fall; 9(3): 391-4.
Phan, M. G., et al. "Chemical and biological evaluation on scopadulane-type diterpenoids from Scoparia dulcis of Vietnamese origin." Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2006 Apr; 54(4): 546-9.
Hayashi, K., et al. "Evaluation of scopadulciol-related molecules for their stimulatory effect on the cytotoxicity of acyclovir and ganciclovir against Herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase gene-transfected HeLa cells." Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2004 Aug; 52(8): 1015-7.
Riel, M. A., et al. “Efficacy of scopadulcic acid A against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro.” J. Nat. Prod. 2002; 65(4): 614-5.
Kanamoto, T., et al. “Anti-human immunodeficiency virus activity of YK-FH312 (a betulinic acid derivative), a novel compound blocking viral maturation.” Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2001; 45(4): 1225–30.
Rahman, S. M., et al. “The first total synthesis of (+/-)-scopadulin, an antiviral aphidicolane diterpene.” Org. Lett. 2001 Feb; 3(4): 619-21.
Begum, S. A., et al. “Chemical and biological studies of Scoparia dulcis L. plant extracts.” J. Bangladesh Acad. Sci. 2000; 24(2): 141-148.
Hayashi, T., et al. “Antiviral agents of plant origin. II. Antiviral activity of scopadulcic acid B derivatives.” Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1990; 38(1): 239–42.
Hayashi, T. Et al. “Antiviral agents of plant origin. III. Scopadulin, a novel tetracyclic diterpene from Scoparia dulcis L.” Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1990; 38(4): 945–47.
Hayashi, K., et al. “In vitro and in vivo antiviral activity of scopadulcic acid B from Scoparia dulcis, Scrophulariaceae, against Herpes simplex virus type 1.” Antiviral Res. 1988; 9(6): 345–54.
Laurens, A., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal species of Dakar markets.” Pharmazie. 1985; 40(7): 482.

Chanca piedra (Phyllanthus niruri, amarus)
Chanca piedra has been the subject of much study with Hepatitis B.* A review of 22 randomized trials by The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Research Group suggests it has, “a positive effect on clearance of serum HBsAg (Hepatitis B surface antigen) comparable to interferon and was better than nonspecific treatment or other herbal medicines for HBV and liver enzyme normalization."* Several other studies indicated chanca piedra has antiviral actions against HIV-1.*
Faral-Tello, P., et al. "Cytotoxic, virucidal, and antiviral activity of South American plant and algae extracts." Scientific World Journal. 2012;2012:174837
Wei, W., et al. "Lignans with anti-hepatitis B virus activities from Phyllanthus niruri L." Phytother Res. 2012 Jul;26(7):964-8.
Ravikumar, Y., et al. "Inhibition of hepatitis C virus replication by herbal extract: Phyllanthus amarus as potent natural source." Virus Res. 2011 Jun;158(1-2):89-97
Cheng, H., et al. "Excoecarianin, isolated from Phyllanthus urinaria Linnea, inhibits Herpes simplex virus type 2 infection through inactivation of viral particles." Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2009 Oct 6.
Dirjomuljono, M., et al. "Symptomatic treatment of acute tonsillo-pharyngitis patients with a combination of Nigella sativa and Phyllanthus niruri extract." Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 2008; 46(6): 295-306.
Yang, C., et al. "The in vitro activity of geraniin and 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose isolated from Phyllanthus urinaria against Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 infection." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Apr; 110(3): 555-8.
Bagalkotkar, G., et al. "Phytochemicals from Phyllanthus niruri Linn. and their pharmacological properties: a review." J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2006 Dec; 58(12): 1559-70.
Naik, A., et al. "Effects of alkaloidal extract of Phyllanthus niruri on HIV replication." Indian J. Med. Sci. 2003 Sep; 57(9): 387-93.
Huang, R. L., et al. “Screening of 25 compounds isolated from Phyllanthus species for anti-human hepatitis B virus in vitro.” Phytother. Res. 2003; 17(5): 449-53.
Liu, J., et al. “Genus Phyllanthus for chronic Hepatitis B virus infection: A systematic review.” Viral Hepat. 2001; 8(5): 358–66.
Xin-Hua, W., et al. “A comparative study of Phyllanthus amarus compound and interferon in the treatment of chronic viral Hepatitis B.” Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 2001; 32(1): 140–42.
Wang, M. X., et al. “Herbs of the genus Phyllanthus in the treatment of chronic Hepatitis B: Observation with three preparations from different geographic sites.” J. Lab. Clin. Med. 1995; 126(4): 350–52.
Wang, M. X., et al. “Observations of the efficacy of Phyllanthus spp. in treating patients with chronic Hepatitis B.” 1994; 19(12): 750–52.
Thyagarajan, S. P., et al. “Effect of Phyllanthus amarus on chronic carriers of Hepatitis B virus.” Lancet 1988; 2(8614): 764–66.
Venkateswaran, P. S., et al. “Effects of an extract from Phyllanthus niruri on Hepatitis B and wood chuck hepatitis viruses: in vitro and in vivo studies.” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 1987; 84(1): 274–78.
Bhumyamalaki, et al. “Phyllanthus niruri and jaundice in children.” J. Natl. Integ. Med. Ass. 1983; 25(8): 269–72.
Thyagarajan, S. P., et al. “In vitro inactivation of HBsAG by Eclipta alba (Hassk.) and Phyllanthus niruri (Linn.).” Indian J. Med. Res. 1982; 76s: 124–30.
Notka, F., et al. “Concerted inhibitory activities of Phyllanthus amarus on HIV replication in vitro and ex vivo.” Antiviral Res. 2004 Nov; 64(2): 93-102.
Notka, F., et al. “Inhibition of wild-type human immunodeficiency virus and reverse transcriptase inhibitor-resistant variants by Phyllanthus amarus.” Antiviral Res. 2003 Apr; 58(2): 175-186.
Qian-Cutrone, J. “Niruriside, a new HIV REV/RRE binding inhibitor from Phyllanthus niruri.J. Nat. Prod. 1996; 59(2): 196–99.
Ogata, T., et al. “HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor from Phyllanthus niruri.AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 1992; 8(11): 1937–44.

Sangre de Grado (Croton lechleri)
Extracts of sangre de grado have demonstrated antiviral activity against influenza, parainfluenza, Herpes simplex viruses I and II, and Hepatitis A and B. The antiviral and anti-diarrheal properties of sangre de grado have come to the attention of the pharmaceutical industry over the last 10 years. A U.S.-based pharmaceutical company has filed patents on three pharmaceutical preparations that contain antiviral constituents and novel chemicals (a group of plant flavonoids they've named SP-303), extracted from the bark and resin of sangre de grado. Their patented drugs include an oral product for the treatment of respiratory viral infections, a topical antiviral product for the treatment of herpes, and an oral product for the treatment of persistent diarrhea.
Rodriguez-Garcia, A., et al. "Development and in vitro evaluation of biopolymers as a delivery system against periodontopathogen microorganisms." Acta Odontol Latinoam. 2010;23(2):158-63.
Gurgel, L. A., et al. “In vitro antifungal activity of dragon's blood from Croton urucurana against dermatophytes.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005; 97(2): 409-12.
Williams, J. E. “Review of antiviral and immunomodulating properties of plants of the Peruvian rainforest with a particular emphasis on Una de Gato and Sangre de Grado.” Altern. Med. Rev. 2001; 6(6): 567–79.
Sidwell R., et al. “Influenza virus-inhibitory effects of intraperitoneally and aerosol-administered SP-303, a plant flavonoid.” Chemotherapy. 1994; 40(1): 42–50.
Chen, Z. P., et al. “Studies on the anti-tumour, anti-bacterial, and wound-healing properties of dragon’s blood.” Planta Med. 1994; 60(6): 541–45.
Rao, G. S., et al. “Antimicrobial agents from higher plants. Dragon's blood resin.”J. Nat. Prod. 1982 Sep-Oct; 45(5): 646-8.

Copaiba Oil (Copaifera officinalis)
Copaiba contains several chemicals, including beta-bisabolene, which have been documented with antiviral actions.
Pieri, F. et al. "Bacteriostatic effect of copaiba oil (Copaifera officinalis) against Streptococcus mutans." Braz Dent J. 2012;23(1):36-8.
Santos, R., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of Amazonian oils against Paenibacillus species." J Invertebr Pathol. 2012 Mar;109(3):265-8.
Souza, A., et al. "Antimicrobial evaluation of diterpenes from Copaifera langsdorffii oleoresin against periodontal anaerobic bacteria." Molecules. 2011 Nov 18;16(11):9611-9.
Souz, a., ET AL. "Antimicrobial activity of terpenoids from Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. against cariogenic bacteria." Phytother Res. 2011 Feb;25(2):215-20.
Astani, A., et al. "Screening for antiviral activities of isolated compounds from essential oils." Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2010.
Correia, A.., et al. "Amazonian plant crude extract screening for activity against multidrug-resistant bacteria." Eur. Rev. Med. Pharmacol. Sci. 2008 Nov-Dec; 12(6): 369-80.
Santos, A., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of Brazilian copaiba oils obtained from different species of the Copaifera genus." Mem .Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 2008 May; 103(3):277-81.
Kuete, V., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of the methanolic extract, fractions and compounds from the stem bark of Irvingia gabonensis (Ixonanthaceae)." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Oct; 114(1): 54-60.
Cotoras, M., et al. “Characterization of the antifungal activity on Botrytis cinerea of the natural diterpenoids kaurenoic acid and 3beta-hydroxy-kaurenoic acid.” J. Agric. Food Chem. 2004 May; 52(10): 2821-6.
Sartori, M. R., et al. “Antifungal activity of fractions and two pure compounds of flowers from Wedelia paludosa (Acmela brasiliensis) (Asteraceae).” Pharmazie. 2003; 58(8): 567-9.
Tincusi, B. M., et al. “Antimicrobial terpenoids from the oleoresin of the Peruvian medicinal plant Copaifera paupera." Planta Med. 2002; 68(9): 808–12.
Wilkins, M., et al. “Characterization of the bactericidal activity of the natural diterpene kaurenoic acid.” Planta Med. 2002 68(5): 452–54.
Yang, D., et al. “Use of caryophyllene oxide as an antifungal agent in an in vitro experimental model of onychomycosis.” Mycopathologia. 1999; 148(2): 79–82.
Davino, S. C., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of kaurenoic acid derivatives substituted on carbon-15.” Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 1989; 22(9): 1127–29.
Maruzzella, J. C., et al. “Antibacterial activity of essential oil vapors.” J. Am. Pharm. Assoc. 1960; 49: 692–94.




*The statements contained herein have not been evaluated
by the Food and Drug Administration. The information contained herein is intended and provided for education, research, entertainment and information purposes only. This information is not intended to be used to diagnose, prescribe or replace proper medical care. The plants and/or formulas described herein are not intended to treat, cure, diagnose, mitigate or prevent any disease and no medical claims are made.
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