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Database File for:

Ubos
(Spondias mombin)

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UBOS

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  • Family: Anacardiaceae
    Taxon: Spondias mombin L.
    Synonyms: Spondias lutea, S. aurantiaca, S. axillaris. S cytherea, S. dubia, S. graveolens, S. lucida, S myrobalanus, S. nigrescens, S. pseudomyrobalanus, S purpurea, S. radlkoferi, S. venulosa, S. zansee
    Common names: acaiba, acaja, acaja, acajaiba, acaju ajuela, agria, binbish-sheshon, caja, caja-mirim, caja-pequeno, cajazeira, cajazeiro, cajazeiro-miudo, cancharana, cansa boca, canyarana, ciruela amarilla, diji, ciruela, ciruelo, hog plum, hubas, hubo, hubus, imbu, imbuzeiro, itahuba, Jamaica-plum, jobo, jocote, joshin heshon, marope, metsoqui, mombin, mompe, serigiiela, sheshon, sheson, shungi ushun, shungo, shungu, tapareba, tapereba, taperiba, taperiba ubo, tobo de la raontana, tronador, tsiyoroqui, ubos Colorado, ubos, ushum, ushun, uvo, xuxoon), yellow mombin, ylopo
    Parts Used: bark, leaves, flowers, fruit, root


    UBOS LEAF
    HERBAL PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS
    Main Actions Other Actions Standard Dosage
  • kills bacteria
  • calms & sedates
  • Leaves
  • kills viruses
  • kills parasites
  • Infusion: 1 cup 2-3 times daily
  • reduces anxiety
  • relieves pain
  • Capsules: 1-2 g twice daily
  • aids digestion
  • suppresses cough
  •  
  • kills candida
  •    
  • stimulates uterus
  •    
  • expels worms
  •    
  • stops convulsions
  •    

    UBOS BARK
    HERBAL PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS
    Main Actions Other Actions Standard Dosage
  • reduces inflammation
  • contraceptive
  • Bark
  • relieves pain
  • kills bacteria
  • Decoction: 1 cup 2-3 times daily
  • reduces spasms
  •   Tincture: 2 ml twice daily
  • kills fungi
  •    
  • kills candida
  •    
  • heals wounds
  •    
  • heals rashes
  •    
  • stops bleeding
  •    

    Ubos is the Peruvian name for this tropical fruit tree. In the English-speaking tropics it is often called "hog plum." This deciduous tree is erect and grows to 20 meters tall with a trunk 60-75 cm in diameter. The trunk is slightly buttressed and has a thick, fissured, corky, greyish bark. The leaves are 20-45 cm long and hairy underneath. The tree produces an abundant crop of small, fragrant, white flowers in panicles. Ubos also produces numerous plum-like fruits that hang in branched terminal clusters of a dozen or more. The fruit starts out green and then turns to a light golden-yellow upon ripening. They are about 3-4 cm long and 2.5 cm wide with a thin tough skin and a very juicy pulp which is very acidic and usually sour-tasting. The fruits are favored by tapirs and wild hogs where it grows in the wild, but the people in the area usually prepare it with sugar or sugarcane juice in jams, juices, and ice creams to counteract its tartness. One of its Indian names is taperiba which means "fruit of the tapir," and Indians in the Amazon will often hunt tapir using ubos fruit as bait.

    Ubos is native to the lowland moist forests of the Amazon in Peru, Brazil, Venezuela, Bolivia, Colombia, the three Guianas, as well as southern Mexico, Belize, Costa Rica, and the West Indies. It is strictly tropical and rarely occurs above about 1,000 meters in elevation. While it is widely found in the rainy lowland rainforests of the Amazon, it has also adapted to grow in more arid zones of Brazil, Peru, and the Caribbean as well. The tree grows quite rapidly and is sometimes planted as living fence posts as well as for shade and for its fruits.

    TRIBAL AND HERBAL MEDICINE USES

    Ubos is widely relied on for various herbal remedies for numerous conditions and virtually every part of the tree is used — from its thick corky bark, to its leaves, fruits, roots, to even its flowers. Usually different properties and actions are attributed to different parts of the tree.

    In South American herbal medicine systems as well as in other parts of the world ubos leaves are widely used for female reproductive tracts issues. It is a common midwife's remedy to help induce labor, reduce bleeding and pain during and after childbirth, to bring on the flow of breast milk, and as a vaginal wash to prevent or treat uterine or vaginal infections after childbirth. The leaves are also a common remedy for various digestive problems including stomachaches, diarrhea, dyspepsia, gastralgia, colic, and constipation. The leaves are considered to be antiviral, antibacterial, anticandidal, and antiseptic and used in numerous microbial problems including colds and flu, cystitis, urethritis, sore throats, herpes, yeast infections, gonorrhea, eye and ear infections, and used externally for infected wounds, cuts, burns, and rashes. The leaves are also considered to be an excellent vermifuge and anthelmintic and often used for intestinal worms and parasites in humans as well as their livestock.

    The bark of the ubos tree is also employed by midwives. It is widely used as a contraceptive and abortive, as well as for ovarian and uterine cancer. It is considered analgesic and antispasmodic and used for arthritis, rheumatism, muscle and joint pain, injuries and inflammation. The bark contains a great deal of astringent tannins and is usually prepared in decoctions for diarrhea and dysentery, blenorrhagia, hemorrhoids, and for internal and external wounds and bleeding. In addition, the bark is also used for tonsilitis, laryngitis, malaria, fever, erysipelas, bladder and kidney stones, snakebite, and intestinal ulcers . The bark is also considered to be a good topical antiseptic and healing remedy for all types of wounds, rashes, psoriasis, dermatitis, leishmaniasis, leprosy, and other skin problems.

    The many small fragrant flowers of ubos are also used in herbal medicine. They are typically prepared in an infusion and used for eye infections and cataracts, as a soothing tea for sore throat, laryngitis and mouth sores, as well as a heart tonic. The root is used as an antimicrobial for tuberculosis, diarrhea and vaginal infections. The fruit is eaten as a mild laxative but in large quantities it is considered to be emetic (induces vomiting).

    PLANT CHEMICALS

    Ubos leaves and bark contains tannins, saponins, flavonoids, sterols, quinones, and antioxidant chemicals. The leaves have been reported to contain several salicylic acid derivatives (aspirin is a type of salicylic acid) which probably explains the traditional use of the leaves for various types of pain. The bark and leaves also contains a well known chemical with pain-relieving actions called caryophyllene. The leaves are also a significant source of another chemical called chlorogenic acid. This natural plant chemical has been reported with antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory actions.

    BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND CLINICAL RESEARCH

    Toxicity studies with mice and rats were performed on ubos in several published studies. The leaves were reported non-toxic in animals when administered orally (up to 5 g per kg of an animal's weight). Toxicity was noted however when animals were injected with a leaf extract (LD50 was between 1.36 and 1.86 gm / kg). The use of ubos leaves by midwives has been studied and reported over several years. It was reported with uterine stimulant actions as well as abortive effects in three studies with laboratory animals (mice and guinea pigs). Ubos leaves were also reported with smooth muscle relaxant actions, uterine antispasmodic, sedative and anticonvulsant actions, and anti-anxiety actions in other animal studies which help validate some of its other traditional uses. In addition, ubos leaves have long been used traditionally to treat parasitic and intestinal worms in humans and animals. One research group administered the leaves (2 doses of 500 mg per kg in body weight) to sheep with confirmed intestinal worms and reported that it reduced fecal egg counts by 54% for Strongyloides, 65% for Oesophagostomum, and 100% for Tichuris parasites. They also reported it directly killed these parasites in their test tube studies.

    In other test tube studies, ubos leaves have been reported with antioxidant actions, antibacterial actions, antiviral actions, anti-candidal actions, and hemostatic actions. One study indicated that ubos leaves had the ability to inhibit beta-lactamase — an enzyme produced by certain bacteria that inactivates penicillin and results in resistance to that antibiotic. Its reported antiviral actions (against herpes, HIV, cocksacie, poliovirus, and rotoviruses) might be explained by reports that ubos has the ability to inhibit reverse transcriptase — a chemical required by many viruses to replicate.

    The bark and/or stembark of ubos has also been studied by scientists. It was reported with anti-inflammatory actions in an animal study with rats which might be explained by another study reporting that ubos had COX-inhibitor actions in vitro (an enzyme involved in the creation of inflammation in the body). The bark has also been reported with antibacterial actions in test tube studies but was not as effective as the leaves. It was also reported to inhibit human rotovirus by 82% in vitro which might explain its long standing use for diarrhea. Other in vitro testing researchers also reported that ubos bark has strong antifungal and anti-candidal actions.

    Ubos bark and leaves have both been studied for their antitumorous and anticancerous effects. Extracts of both the leaves and bark passed an initial screening test to predict anti-tumor actions in two analyses. During the same time university students at Cornell University testing the bark in vitro against colon and skin cancer cell lines reported no cytotoxic effect. However, university researchers in Nigeria reported in 2002 that rats fed with ubos bark had a much lower rate of tumor incidence over the control group when fed a carcinogenic diet and reported that ubos bark had a anticancerous effect in their animal studies.

    In 2002, a U.S. patent was filed on a cosmetic product that contained an extract of ubos leaves. In the patent, the French researchers indicated that ubos leaves had de-pigmenting, antioxidant, anti-aging, cellular metabolism stimulation, and sunscreen effects for the skin.

    CURRENT PRACTICAL USES

    Ubos is widely known in the tropics where it grows however American consumers are just now learning about it. There are only one or two U.S.-made products available currently. Consumers should pay attention to which part of the tree is being marketed since the leaves and bark have different properties, actions, and traditional uses. In South America the bark is considered a good anti-inflammatory and analgesic and used for inflamed and painful conditions like arthritis, rheumatism, and skin rashes, while the leaves are a common remedy for digestive and female complaints as well as an antimicrobial for infections conditions.



    UBOS LEAF PLANT SUMMARY
    Main Preparation Method: infusion or capsules

    Main Actions (in order): antibacterial, antiviral, anthelminthic, stomachic, anti-anxiety

    Main Uses:

    1. as a broad spectrum antiseptic and antibacterial
    2. for viruses
    3. for intestinal worms and parasites
    4. as a menstrual regulator and for menstrual pain, cramps and irregularity, vaginal infections and yeast infections.
    5. as a nervine; for stress and anxiety
    Properties/Actions Documented by Research: abortifacient, anthelmintic, antibacterial, anticandidal, anticarcinogenic, anticonvulsant, antidopaminergic, antifungal, antioxidant, antispasmodic, antiviral, anti-yeast, anxiolytic, cytotoxic, smooth muscle relaxant, hemostatic, sedative, and uterine stimulant

    Properties/Actions Documented by Traditional Use: abortifacient, anthelmintic, antibacterial, antiseptic, antispasmodic, antitussive, antiviral, astringent, diuretic, hemostat, lactagogue, oxytocic, refrigerant, stimulant, stomachic, tonic, vermifuge, and vulnerary

    Cautions: Do not use if pregnant. Do not use if allergic to aspirin.

    UBOS BARK PLANT SUMMARY
    Main Preparation Method: decoction or tincture

    Main Actions (in order): anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antispasmodic, vulnerary, antimicrobial

    Main Uses:

    1. as an anti-inflammatory for arthritis, muscle and joint injuries, etc.
    2. as a pain-reliever for various types of internal and external pains
    3. as an astringent and antiseptic wound healer for rashes, cuts, wounds, abrasions and other skin conditions
    4. for rotoviral diarrhea and dysentery
    5. for ovarian and uterine cancer
    Properties/Actions Documented by Research: antibacterial, anti-candidal, anti-carcinomic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, COX-inhibitor, cytotoxic, and uterine stimulant

    Properties/Actions Documented by Traditional Use: abortive, analgesic, anti-arthritic, antibacterial, anticancerous, antidysenteric, anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatic, antiseptic, antiulcerous, antiviral, astringent, cicatrizant, contraceptive, hemostat, and vulnerary

    Cautions: Do not use if pregnant or seeking to become pregnant.



    Traditional Preparation: Ubos leaves are traditionally prepared in infusions while the bark is typically prepared in decoctions or tinctures. See Traditional Herbal Remedies Preparation Methods page if necessary for definitions.

    Contraindications:

    • Ubos leaves are traditionally used as a childbirth aid to induce labor and as an abortive. Animals studies report uterine stimulant and abortive actions. Do not use if you are pregnant unless under the direct supervision of a medical practitioner.
    • Ubos bark is traditionally used as a contraceptive. While no animal or human studies support this traditional use, women seeking to become pregnant should probably avoid use of this plant.
    • Ubos leaves contains salicylic acid derivatives. If allergic or sensitive to aspirin or salicylic acid, avoid use of the leaves.

      Drug Interactions: None reported. Animal studies document ubos leaves with sedative and anti-anxiety effects and as such, the leaves might enhance the effect of other sedative and anti-anxiety medications.


    WORLDWIDE ETHNOMEDICAL USES
    Africa for bleeding, childbirth, chronic diarrhea, constipation, coughs, diarrhea, fever, gonorrhea, postpartum hemorrhage, stomach problems, tapeworm, and yaws
    Belize for diarrhea, dysentery, gonorrhea, inflammation, insect bites, sores, sore throat, rashes, weakness, and wounds
    Bolivia for injuries and wounds
    Brazil as an anthelmintic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory. antispasmodic, antiviral, astringent, diuretic, emetic, molluscicidal, refrigerant, stimulant, stomachic, tonic, and vermifuge; for angina, blenorrhagia, childbirth complications, colic, constipation, cystitis, debility, diarrhea, dysentery, dyspepsia, erysipelas, eye problems, eye infections, fever, gastralgia, gonorrhea, heart tonic, heart palpitations, hemorrhoids, herpes, intestinal worms, laryngitis, malaria, mouth inflammation, prostatitis, sore throat, stomach pain, stomach ulcers, tonsilitis, sore throat, urethritis, uterine disorders, vaginal infections, vaginal disorders, and weakness
    Colombia as a contraceptive; for diarrhea, menstrual disorders, vaginal infections, and wounds
    Cuba for uterine cancer
    Guianas for colds, coughs, diarrhea, dysentery, eye infections, fatigue, gonorrhea, hemorrhages, mouth sores, sores, stomachache, wounds, and as an abortifacient
    Haiti as a laxative; for coughs, gonorrhea, ophthalmia, sore throat, and urethritis
    Mexico for bladder problems, dysentery, and kidney stones
    Nicaragua for diarrhea, fever, infections, skin rashes, sores, and wounds
    Nigeria as an abortifacient, anti-inflammatory, childbirth aid, diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, hemostat, laxative, and oxytocic (induces labor); for burns, childbirth, cholera, cough, cuts, diarrhea, dizziness, eye ailments, fever, gonorrhea, malignant tumors, nervous disorders, sore throat, sores, stomach pains, tapeworm, thrush, wounds, and yaws
    Peru as an analgesic, antibacterial, antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, cicatrizant, contraceptive, hemostat, stomachic, and vulnerary; for anemia, asthma, bacterial infections, blenorrhagia, cataracts, childbirth aid, childbirth, cuts, cystitis, cysts, debility, dehydration, dermatitis, diarrhea, digestive problems, dysentery, erysipelas, erythema, excessive menstrual bleeding, female reproductive tract disorders, fevers, fungal infections, gastritis, genital disorders, heat rash, hemorrhages, hemorrhoids, herpes, infections, intestinal ulcers, kidney problems, laryngitis, leishmaniasis, menstrual pain, ovarian cancer, postpartum infections, psoriasis, rashes, renal problems, skin fungi, skin eruptions, snakebite, sore throat, stomach problems, stomach pain, tonsilitis, tuberculosis, ulcers, urethritis, uterine problems, vaginal problems, vaginal infections, wounds, and yeast infections
    Trinidad as an astringent, and gargle; for colds, diarrhea, erysipelas, nephritis, sores, sore throat, and thrush
    Venezuela for coughs, diarrhea, dysentery, pertussis, skin lesions, and stomachaches
    Elsewhere for childbirth, colds, coughs, diarrhea, dysentery, edema, gonorrhea, hemorrhoids, leprosy, leucorrhea, urethritis, and wounds



    The above text has been authored by Leslie Taylor and copyrighted © 2006. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, including websites, without written permission.

    † The statements contained herein have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The information contained in this plant database file is intended for education, entertainment and information purposes only. This information is not intended to be used to diagnose, prescribe or replace proper medical care. The plant described herein is not intended to treat, cure, diagnose, mitigate or prevent any disease. Please refer to our Conditions of Use for using this plant database file and web site.




    Published Third-Party Research on Ubos


    All available third-party research on ubos can be found at PubMed. A partial listing of the published research on ubos is shown below:

    Uterine Stimulant, Antifertility & Abortive Actions:
    Uchendu, C., et al. "Antifertility activity of aqueous ethanolic leaf extract of Spondias mombin (Anacardiaceae) in rats." Afr Health Sci. 2008 Sep;8(3):163-7.
    Offiah, V., et al. "Abortifacient activity of an aqueous extract of Spondias mombin leaves." J. Ethnopharmacol 1989; 26(3): 317-320.
    Barros, G., et al. "Pharmacological screening of some Brazilian plants." J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1970; 22: 116.
    Akubue, P., et al. "Preliminary pharmacological study of some Nigerian medicinal plants." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1983; 8(1): 53-63.

    Muscle Relaxant & Antispasmodic Actions:
    Akubue, P., et al. "Preliminary pharmacological study of some Nigerian medicinal plants." J. Ethnopharmacol. 1983; 8(1): 53-63.
    Uchendu, C., et al. "Spasmogenic activity of butanolic leaf extract of Spondias mombin in isolated uterine muscle of the rat: role of calcium. J. Nat. Remedies 2005; 5(1): 7-14.

    Anti-anxiety, Sedative & Anticonvulsant Actions:
    Ayoka, A., et al. "Sedative, antiepileptic and antipsychotic effects of Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae) in mice and rats." J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Jan 16;103(2):166-75.
    Ayoka, A., et al. "Studies on the anxiolytic effect of Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae) extracts." J. Trad. CAM. 2005: 2(2): 153-165.
    Ayoka, A., et al. "Sedative, antiepileptic and antipsychotic effects of Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae) in mice and rats." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Jan; 103(2): 166-75.

    Hypoglycemic & Anti-Diabetic Actions:
    Fred-Jaiyesimi A., et al. "Hypoglycaemic and amylase inhibitory activities of leaves of Spondias mombin Linn." Afr J Med Med Sci. 2009 Dec;38(4):343-9.

    Cardio-protective Actions:
    Akinmoladun, A., et al. "Ramipril-like activity of Spondias mombin linn against no-flow ischemia and isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxicity in rat heart." Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2010 Dec;10(4):295-305.

    Anthelmintic (worm-expelling) & Anti-parasitic Actions:
    Accioly, M., et al. "Leishmanicidal activity in vitro of Musa paradisiaca L. and Spondias mombin L. fractions." Vet Parasitol. 2012 Jun 8;187(1-2):79-84.
    Gbolade, A., et al. "Anthelmintic activities of three medicinal plants from Nigeria." Fitoterapia. 2008 Apr;79(3):223-5. d
    Ademola, I., et al. "Anthelmintic activity of extracts of Spondias mombin against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep: Studies in vitro and in vivo." So. Trop Anim, Health Prod. 2005 Apr; 37(3): 223-35.

    Antioxidant Actions:
    da Silva, A., et al. "Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of two Spondias species from Northeastern Brazil." Pharm Biol. 2012 Jun;50(6):740-6.
    Akinmoladun, A., et al. "Evaluation of antioxidant and free radical scavenging capacities of some Nigerian indigenous medicinal plants." J Med Food. 2010 Apr;13(2):444-51
    Calderon, A., et al. "Forest plot as a tool to demonstrate the pharmaceutical potential of plants in a tropical forest of Panama." Econ. Bot. 2000; 54(3): 278-294.
    Kramer, A., et al. "Ethnobotany and biological activity of plants utilized during pregnancy and childbirth in the Peruvian Amazon." Emanations from the Rainforest and the Carribean Vol. 4 Sept. 2002, Cornell University. Pauly, G., et al. "Cosmetic containing plant extracts." U.S. Patent No. 6,406,720. June 18, 2002.

    Anti-inflammatory & COX-Inhibitory Actions:
    Nworu, C., et al. "The leaf extract of Spondias mombin L. displays an anti-inflammatory effect and suppresses inducible formation of tumor necrosis factor-a and nitric oxide (NO)." J Immunotoxicol. 2011 Jan-Mar;8(1):10-6.
    Abad, M., et al. "Antiinflammatory activity of some medicinal plant extracts from Venezuela". J. Ethnopharmacol. 1996; 55: 63-68.
    Calderon, A., et al. "Forest plot as a tool to demonstrate the pharmaceutical potential of plants in a tropical forest of Panama." Econ. Bot. 2000; 54(3): 278-294.

    Antimicrobial Actions (bacteria, virus, fungi, candida):
    Ubos bark has been reported with antibacterial actions in test tube studies against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus cereus. It was also reported to inhibit human rotovirus by 82% in vitro which might explain its long standing use for diarrhea. In other in vitro testing researchers also reported that ubos bark has strong antifungal and anticandidal actions.
    da Silva, A., et al. "Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of two Spondias species from Northeastern Brazil." Pharm Biol. 2012 Jun;50(6):740-6.
    Amadi, E., et al. "Studies on the antimicrobial effects of Spondias mombin and Baphia nittida on dental caries organism." Pak J Biol Sci. 2007 Feb 1;10(3):393-7.
    Calderon, A., et al. "Forest plot as a tool to demonstrate the pharmaceutical potential of plants in a tropical forest of Panama." Econ. Bot. 2000; 54(3): 278-294.
    Kramer, A., et al. "Ethnobotany and biological activity of plants utilized during pregnancy and childbirth in the Peruvian Amazon." Emanations from the Rainforest and the Carribean Vol. 4 Sept. 2002, Cornell University.
    Flood, K., et al. "Phytochemical analysis of Cedrela odorata and Spondias mombin, two dietary sources of Callithrix pygmea on the Yarapa river in the Amazon basin of Peru." Emanations from the Rainforest and the Carribean Vol. 4 Sept. 2002, Cornell University.
    Ajao, A., et al. "Antibacterial effect of aqueous and alcohol extracts of Spondias mombin, and Alchornea cordifolia - two local antimicrobial remedies." Int. J. Crude Drug Res. 1985; 23(2): 67-72.
    Abo, K., et al. "Antimicrobial potential of Spondias mombin, Croton zambesicus and Zygotritonia crocea." Phytother. Res. 1999; 13(6): 494-497.
    Corthout, J., et al. "Antivirally active substances from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae)." Abstr. Internat. Res. Cong. Nat. Prod. Coll Pharm. Univ. July 7-12 1985 Abstr. - 53. N. Carolina University, Chapel Hill, NC
    Corthout, J., et al. "Antivirally active substances from Spondias mombin L." Pharm. Weekbl. 1987; 9(4): 222.
    Goncalves, J., et al. "In vitro anti-rotavirus activity of some medicinal plants used in Brazil against diarrhea." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Jul; 99(3): 403-7.
    Corthout, J. et al. "Antiviral caffeoyl esters from Spondias mombin." Phytochemistry 1992; 31(6): 1979-1981.
    Ramirez, V., et al., "Vegetales empleados en medicina tradicional Norperuana." Banco Agrario Del Peru & Nacl Univ Trujillo, Trujillo, Peru, June, 1988 Page 54.
    Coates, N., et al. "SB-202742, A novel beta-lactamase inhibitor isolated from Spondias mombin." J. Nat. Prod. 1994; 57(5): 654-657.
    Herforth, A., "Anti-fungal plants of the Peruvian Amazon: A survey of ethnomedical uses and biological activity." Emanations from the Rainforest and the Carribean. Vol. 4 Sept. 2002, Cornell University.

    Cytotoxic & Anticancerous Actions:
    Flood, K., et al. "Phytochemical analysis of Cedrela odorata and Spondias mombin, two dietary sources of Callithrix pygmea on the Yarapa river in the Amazon basin of Peru." Emanations from the Rainforest and the Carribean Vol. 4 Sept. 2002, Cornell University.
    Herforth, A., "Anti-fungal plants of the Peruvian Amazon: A survey of ethnomedical uses and biological activity." Emanations from the Rainforest and the Carribean Vol. 4 Sept. 2002, Cornell University.
    Quignard, E., et al. "Screening of plants found in Amazonas state for lethality towards brine shrimp." Acta Amazonica. 2003; 33(1): 93-104.
    Idu, M., et al. "Studies on the nutritional value and anti-tumour property of the bark of Spondias mombin L." J. Med. Biomed. Res. 2002; 1(2): 223-228.

    Anti-aging & Sunscreen Actions: Pauly, G., et al. "Cosmetic containing plant extracts." U.S. Patent No. 6,406,720. June 18, 2002.



    * The statements contained herein have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The information contained in this plant database file is intended for education, entertainment and information purposes only. This information is not intended to be used to diagnose, prescribe or replace proper medical care. The plant described herein is not intended to treat, cure, diagnose, mitigate or prevent any disease. Please refer to our Conditions of Use for using this plant database file and web site.




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