Amazon Calm Support

120 capsules (650 mg each)

This product is no longer sold by Raintree Nutrition, Inc. See the main product page for more information why. Try doing a google search or see the rainforest products page to find other companies selling rainforest herbal supplements or rainforest plants if you want to make this rainforest formula yourself.

A synergistic formula of 8 rainforest botanicals traditionally used in South America for stress, anxiety and panic.* For more information on the individual ingredients in Amazon Calm Support, follow the links provided below to the plant database files in the Tropical Plant Database.

Ingredients: A proprietary blend of mulungu, manacá, piri-piri, graviola, catuaba, iporuru, ubos, passionflower, chamomile, and muira puama. To prepare this natural remedy yourself: use three parts mulungu, three parts manaca, and one part each of the remaining herbs in the list. To make a small amount... "1 part" could be one tablespoon (you'd have 14 tablespoons of the blended herbal formula). For larger amounts, use "1 part" as one ounce or one cup or one pound. Combine all the herbs together well. The herbal mixture can then be stuffed into capsules or brewed into tea, stirred into juice or other liquid, or taken however you'd like.
Suggested Use: Take 2 grams by weight (or about 1 teaspoon by volume) two to three times daily, or as directed by a healthcare professional.
Contraindications: Not to be used during pregnancy or while breast-feeding.
Drug Interactions: May enhance the effect of blood pressure medications.
Other Practitioner Observations:

  • Manacá contains salicylate. Those allergic to or sensitive to aspirin and salicylates should avoid this formulation.
  • Several plants in this formula have been documented to reduce blood pressure in animal studies. Individuals with low blood pressure should be monitored for this possible effect.
  • In some individuals this formula may cause drowsiness. If this interferes with daily work, the dosage should be reduced.

Third-Party Published Research*

This rainforest formula has not been the subject of any clinical research. A partial listing of third-party published research on each herbal ingredient in the formula is shown below. Please refer to the plant database files by clicking on the plant names below to see all available documentation and research on each plant ingredient.

Mulungu (Erythrina mulungu)
Mulungu has demonstrated in 6 recent rat studies to possess effective anti-anxiety (anxiolytic) actions and in another study it demonstrated sedative and CNS-depressant actions. In a 2006 study, mulungu was reported to increase memory and learning. In one of the studies on anti-anxiety actions, the researchers reported that mulungu had an effect similar to the commonly-prescribed anti-anxiety drug diazepam. Brazilian re-searchers reported in two 2007 animal studies that the anti-anxiety action of mulungu could be atttributed to two erythravine chemicals found in the plant. In an earlier study, they suggested that these alkaloids may alter GABAergic neurotransmission. GABA (gamma-amino butyric acid) acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain; abnormalities with its function is implicated in diseases including epilepsy, anxiety, and depression. Researchers in 2012 attribute mulungu's anti-anxiety actions to an alkaloid chemical named erysothrine and continued to validate it's anti-anxiety action in animal studies.
Santos Rosa, D., et al. "Erysothrine, an alkaloid extracted from flowers of Erythrina mulungu Mart. ex Benth: evaluating its anticonvulsant and anxiolytic potential." Epilepsy Behav. 2012 Mar;23(3):205-12.
Nagaraja, T., et al. "Evaluation of Anxiolytic effect of Erythrina mysorensis Gamb. in mice." Indian J Pharmacol. 2012 Jul;44(4):489-92.
Santos, W., et al. "In vitro and ex vivo anticholinesterase activities of Erythrina velutina leaf extracts." Pharm Biol. 2012 Jul;50(7):919-24.
Flausino, O., et al. "Effects of erythrinian alkaloids isolated from Erythrina mulungu (Papilionaceae) in mice submitted to animal models of anxiety." Biol Pharm Bull. 2007 Feb;30(2):375-8.
Flausino, O., et al. "Anxiolytic effects of erythrinian alkaloids from Erythrina mulungu." J Nat Prod. 2007 Jan;70(1):48-53.
Ribeiro, M. D., “Effect of Erythrina velutina and Erythrina mulungu in rats submitted to animal models of anxiety and depression.” Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 2006; 39(2): 263-70.
Hidalgo, A., et al. "Differential expression of glycans in the hippocampus of rats trained on an inhibitory learning paradigm." Neuropathology. 2006 Dec; 26(6): 501-7.
Vasconcelos, S. M., et al. “Central activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from Erythrina velutina and Erythrina mulungu in mice.” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2004; 56(3): 389-93.
Onusic, G.M., et al. “Effects of chronic treatment with a water-alcohol extract from Erythrina mulungu on anxiety-related responses in rats.” Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2003; 26(11): 1538-42.
Onusic, G. M., et al. “Effect of acute treatment with a water-alcohol extract of Erythrina mulungu on anxiety-related responses in rats.” Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 2002; 35(4): 473–77.
Kittler, J. T., et al. “Mechanisms of GABA receptor assembly and trafficking: implications for the modulation of inhibitory neurotransmission.” Mol. Neurobiol. 2002; 26(2–3): 251–68.

Manacá (Brunfelsia uniflora)
Manaca has been documented with central nervous system depressant and sedative actions.
Moon, P. D., et al. "Use of scopoletin to inhibit the production of inflammatory cytokines through inhibition of the IkappaB/NF-kappaB signal cascade in the human mast cell line HMC-1." Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2007 Jan; 555(2-3): 218-25.
Rollinger, J. M., et al. “Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of scopolin and scopoletin discovered by virtual screening of natural products.” J. Med. Chem. 2004 Dec 2; 47(25): 6248-54.
Kim, H. J., et al. “Scopoletin suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokines and PGE2 from LPS-stimulated cell line, RAW 264.7 cells.” Fitoterapia. 2004 Jun; 75(3-4): 261-6.
Chiou, L. C., et al. "Chinese herb constituent beta-eudesmol alleviated the electroshock seizures in mice and electrographic seizures in rat hippocampal slices." Neurosci. Lett. 1997; 231(3): 171-74.
Ruppelt, B. M., et al. “Pharmacological screening of plants recommended by folk medicine as anti-snake venom–I. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities.” Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 1991; 86: 203–5.

Piri-Piri (Cyperus articulatus)
Piri-piri is traditionally used in the Amazon as a nerve tonic in cases of stress and nervous and mental disorders (including epilepsy). It has been reported in animal studies to mediate many of the brain chemical reactions which are present in epilepsy. Other animal research documents the plant with anti-epileptic, anticonvulsant and sedative actions.
Rakotonirina, V. S., et al. “Sedative properties of the decoction of the rhizome of Cyperus articulatus.” Fitoterapia. 2001; 72(1): 22-9.
Bum, E. N., et al. “Ions and amino acid analysis of Cyperus articulatus L. (Cyperaceae) extracts and the effects of the latter on oocytes expressing some receptors.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Dec; 95(2-3): 303-9.
Bum, E. N., et al. “Extracts from rhizomes of Cyperus articulatus (Cyperaceae) displace [3H]CGP39653 and [3H]glycine binding from cortical membranes and selectively inhibit NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1996 Nov; 54(2-3): 103-11.
Bum, E. N., et al. “Effects of Cyperus articulatus compared to effects of anticonvulsant compounds on the cortical wedge.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2003 Jul; 87(1): 27-34.
Bum, E. N., et al. “Anticonvulsant properties of the methanolic extract of Cyperus articulatus (Cyperaceae).” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2001 Jul; 76(2): 145-50.
Bum, E. N., et al. “Effect of the decoction of rhizomes of Cyperus articulatus on bicuculline-, n-methyl-d-aspartate- and strychnine-induced behavioural excitation and convulsions in mice.” J. Cameroon Acad. Sci. 2002; 2: 91-95.
Bum, E. N., et al. “Organic and water extracts of Cyperus articulatus (Cyperaceae)inhibited chemically and electrically-induced convulsions in mice.” J. Cameroon Acad. Sci. 2002; 2: 96-106.

Graviola (Annona muricata)
Graviola has shown in animal studies to have antidepressant and sedative actions. One study reported an increase in dopamine, norepinephrine, and monomine oxidase activity, as well as a inhibition of serotonin release in stress-induced rats.
Padma, P., et al. “Effect of Annona muricata and Polyalthia cerasoides on brain neurotransmitters and enzyme monoamine oxidase following cold immobilization stress.” J. Natural Remedies 2001; 1(2): 144–46.
Hasrat, J. A., et al. “Screening of medicinal plants from Suriname for 5-HT 1A ligands: Bioactive isoquinoline alkaloids from the fruit of Annona muricata.” Phytomedicine. 1997; 4(20: 133-140.
N’gouemo, P., et al. “Effects of ethanol extract of Annona muricata on pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsive seizures in mice.” Phytother. Res. 1997; 11(3): 243–45.
Padma, P., et al. “Effect of alcohol extract of Annona muricata on cold immobilization stress induced tissue lipid peroxidation.” Phytother. Res. 1997; 11(4): 326-327.
Hasrat, J. A., et al. “Isoquinoline derivatives isolated from the fruit of Annona muricata as 5-HTergic 5-HT1A receptor agonists in rats: unexploited antidepressive (lead) products.” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1997; 49(11): 1145–49.
Bourne, R. K., et al. “A preliminary study of the sedative effects of Annona muricata (sour sop).” West Indian Med J. 1979 Jun; 28(2): 106-10.

Catuaba (Erythroxlyum catuaba)
Catuaba has long been used in South America as a nerve tonic. It has demonstrated anti-stress and antidepressant actions in both in vivo and in vitro testing by inhibiting the uptake and increasing the release of serotonin and dopamine. Most recently, it has been documented to have neuroprotective actions.
Kamden, J., et al. "Catuaba (Trichilia catigua) Prevents Against Oxidative Damage Induced by In Vitro Ischemia-Reperfusion in Rat Hippocampal Slices." Neurochem Res. 2012 Dec;37(12):2826-35.
Campos, M. M., et al. “Antidepressant-like effects of Trichilia catigua (Catuaba) extract: evidence for dopaminergic-mediated mechanisms.” Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005; 182(1): 45-53. Dopaminergic Effects" Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011; 2011:
Tabanca, N., et al. "Flavan-3-ol-phenylpropanoid conjugates from Anemopaegma arvense and their antioxidant activities." Planta Med. 2007 Aug; 73(10): 1107-11.
Vaz, Z. R., et al. “Analgesic effect of the herbal medicine Catuaba in thermal and chemical models of nociception in mice.” Phytother. Res. 1997; 11(2): 101–6.
Barbosa, N. R., et al. “Inhibition of platelet phospholipase A2 activity by catuaba extract suggests anti-inflammatory properties.” Phytother. Res. 2004; 18(11): 942-4.

Iporuru (Alchornea castaneifolia)
Iporuru is traditional used to reduce stress and relieve pain and inflammation in South American herbal medicine systems. It has been reported in several animal studies with analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions.
Okoye, F., et al. "Topical anti-inflammatory constituents of lipophilic leaf fractions of Alchornea floribunda and Alchornea cordifolia." Nat Prod Res. 2011 Dec;25(20):1941-9.
Lopes, F., et al. "Anti-inflammatory activity of Alchornea triplinervia ethyl acetate fraction: inhibition of Hv(2)Ov(2), NO and TNF-?." Pharm Biol. 2010 Dec;48(12):1320-7.
Kouakou-Siransy, G., et al. "Effects of Alchornea cordifolia on elastase and superoxide anion produced by human neutrophils." Pharm Biol. 2010 Feb;48(2):128-33. Okoye, F., et al. "Anti-inflammatory and membrane-stabilizing stigmastane steroids from Alchornea floribunda leaves." Planta Med. 2010 Feb;76(2):172-7.
Manga, H., et al. "Anti-inflammatory compounds from leaves and root bark of Alchornea cordifolia (Schumach. & Thonn.) Müll. Arg." J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Jan 4;115(1):25-9.
Manga, H.M., et al. “In vivo anti-inflammatory activity of Alchornea cordifolia (Schumach. & Thonn.) Mull. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae).” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Jun; 92(2-3): 209-14.
Osadebe, P. O., et al. “Anti-inflammatory effects of crude methanolic extract and fractions of Alchornea cordifolia leaves.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2003 Nov; 89(1):19-24.
Tona, L., et al. “Antiamoebic and spasmolytic activities of extracts from some antidiarrhoeal traditional preparations used in Kinshasa, Congo.” Phytomedicine. 2000 Mar; 7(1): 31-8.
Dunstan, C. A., et al. “Evaluation of some Samoan and Peruvian medicinal plants by prostaglandin biosynthesis and rat ear oedema assays.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1997; 57: 35–56.
Ogungbamila, F. O., et al. “Smooth muscle–relaxing flavonoids from Alchornea cordifolia.” Acta Pharm. Nord. 1990; 2(6): 421–22.
Persinos-Perdue, G., et al. “Evaluation of Peruvian folk medicine by the natural products research laboratories.” Abstra. Joint Meeting American Society of Pharmacognosy and Society for Economic Botany, Boston, 1981; (5) 13

Ubos (Spondias mombin)
Ubos, in lab studies with rats and mice, was reported to be more effective for anxiety than diazepam. In other in vivo tests, ubos has been reported to be anticonvulsant, sedative, and antidopaminergic.
Ayoka, A., et al. "Sedative, antiepileptic and antipsychotic effects of Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae) in mice and rats." J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Jan 16;103(2):166-75.
Ayoka, A., et al. "Studies on the anxiolytic effect of Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae) extracts." J. Trad. CAM. 2005: 2(2): 153-165.
Ayoka, A., et al. "Sedative, antiepileptic and antipsychotic effects of Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae) in mice and rats." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Jan; 103(2): 166-75.
Uchendu, C., et al. "Spasmogenic activity of butanolic leaf extract of Spondias mombin in isolated uterine muscle of the rat: role of calcium. J. Nat. Remedies 2005; 5(1): 7-14.

Passionflower (Passiflora sp.)
Passionflower has long been used for stress and anxiety in many countries around the world. A good amount of research now supports these traditional uses, including some human studies. In a 2008 double-blind placebo clinical trial with patients undergoing surgery they concluded: "In outpatient surgery, administration of oral Passiflora incarnata as a premedication reduces anxiety without inducing sedation." A second human clinical study in 2012 with 60 surgical patients undergoing spinal anesthesia confirmed the same findings.
Aslanargun, P., et al. "Passiflora incarnata Linneaus as an anxiolytic before spinal anesthesia." J Anesth. 2012 Feb;26(1):39-44.
Sarris, J., et al. "Herbal medicine for depression, anxiety and insomnia: a review of psychopharmacology and clinical evidence." Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2011 Dec;21(12):841-60.
Faustino, T., et al. "[Medicinal plants for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: a review of controlled clinical studies]." Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2010 Dec;32(4):429-36. Review.
Ngan, A., et al. "A double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation of the effects of Passiflora incarnata (passionflower) herbal tea on subjective sleep quality." Phytother Res. 2011 Aug;25(8):1153-9.
Li, H., et al. "Comparative studies on anxiolytic activities and flavonoid compositions of Passiflora edulis 'edulis' and Passiflora edulis 'flavicarpa'." J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Feb 16;133(3):1085-90.
Appel, K., et al. "Modulation of the y-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system by Passiflora incarnata L." Phytother Res. 2011 Jun;25(6):838-43.
Sampath, C., et al. "Anxiolytic effects of fractions obtained from Passiflora incarnata L. in the elevated plus maze in mice." Phytother Res. 2011 Jun;25(6):789-95.
Lakhan, S., et al. "Nutritional and herbal supplements for anxiety and anxiety-related disorders: systematic review." Nutr J. 2010 Oct 7;9:42.
Elsas, S., et al. "Passiflora incarnata L. (Passionflower) extracts elicit GABA currents in hippocampal neurons in vitro, and show anxiogenic and anticonvulsant effects in vivo, varying with extraction method." Phytomedicine. 2010 Oct;17(12):940-9.
Deng, J., et al. "Anxiolytic and sedative activities of Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa." J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Mar 2;128(1):148-53.
Grundmann, O., et al. "Anxiolytic effects of a passion flower (Passiflora incarnata L.) extract in the elevated plus maze in mice." Pharmazie. 2009 Jan;64(1):63-4.
Kinrys, G., et al. "Natural remedies for anxiety disorders: potential use and clinical applications." Depress Anxiety. 2009;26(3):259-65.
Grundmann, O., et al. "Anxiolytic activity of a phytochemically characterized Passiflora incarnata extract is mediated via the GABAergic system." Planta Med. 2008 Dec;74(15):1769-73.
Barbosa, P., et al. "The aqueous extracts of Passiflora alata and Passiflora edulis reduce anxiety-related behaviors without affecting memory process in rats." J Med Food. 2008 Jun;11(2):282-8
Movafegh, A., et al. "Preoperative oral Passiflora incarnata reduces anxiety in ambulatory surgery patients: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study." Anesth Analg. 2008 Jun;106(6):1728-32.
Brown, E., et al. "Evaluation of the anxiolytic effects of chrysin, a Passiflora incarnata extract, in the laboratory rat." AANA J. 2007 Oct;75(5):333-7.
Sarris, J., "Herbal medicines in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: a systematic review." Phytother Res. 2007 Aug;21(8):703-16.
Miyasaka, L., et al. "Passiflora for anxiety disorder." Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jan 24; (1): CD004518.
Coleta, M., et al. "Neuropharmacological evaluation of the putative anxiolytic effects of Passiflora edulis Sims, its sub-fractions and flavonoid constituents." Phytother. Res. 2006 Dec; 20(12): 1067-73.
Lolli, L. F., et al. "Possible involvement of GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor in the anxiolytic-like effect induced by Passiflora actinia extracts in mice." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Nov 26;
Gramowski, A., et al. "Functional screening of traditional antidepressants with primary cortical neuronal networks grown on multielectrode neurochips." Eur. J. Neurosci. 2006 Jul; 24(2): 455-65.
Reginatto, F. H., et al. "Evaluation of anxiolytic activity of spray dried powders of two South Brazilian Passiflora species." Phytother. Res. 2006 May; 20(5): 348-51.
Ernst E. "Herbal remedies for anxiety - a systematic review of controlled clinical trials." Phytomedicine. 2006 Feb; 13(3): 205-8.
Wheatley, D. “Medicinal plants for insomnia: a review of their pharmacology, efficacy and tolerability.” J. Psychopharmacol. 2005 Jul; 19(4): 414-21.
Shinomiya, K., et al. “Hypnotic activities of chamomile and passiflora extracts in sleep-disturbed rats.” Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2005; 28(5): 808-10.
Dhawan, K., et al. “Attenuation of benzodiazepine dependence in mice by a tri-substituted benzoflavone moiety of Passiflora incarnata Linneaus: a non-habit forming anxiolytic.” J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci. 2003 May-Aug; 6(2):215-22.
Dhawan, K., et al. “Comparative anxiolytic activity profile of various preparations of Passiflora incarnata Linneaus: a comment on medicinal plant’s standardization.” J. Altern. Complement. Med. 2002; 8(3): 283-91.
Dhawan, K., et al. “Suppression of alcohol-cessation-oriented hyper-anxiety by the benzoflavone moiety of Passiflora incarnata Linneaus in mice.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002; 81(2): 239-44.
Dhawan, K., et al. “Anxiolytic activity of aerial and underground parts of Passiflora incarnata.” Fitoterapia. 2001; 72(8): 922-6.
Akhondzadeh, S., et al. “Passionflower in the treatment of generalized anxiety: a pilot double-blind randomized controlled trial with oxazepam.” J. Clin. Pharm. Ther. 2001; 26(5): 363-7.
Dhawan, K., et al. “Correct Identification of Passiflora incarnata Linn., a Promising Herbal Anxiolytic and Sedative.” J. Med. Food. 2001 Autumn; 4(3): 137-144.
Wolfman, C., et al. “Possible anxiolytic effects of chrysin, a central benzodiazepine receptor ligand isolated from Passiflora coerulea.” Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 1994; 47(1): 1-4.
Maluf, E., et al. “Assessment of the hypnotic/sedative effects and toxicity of Passiflora edulis aqueous extract in rodents and humans.” Phytother. Res. 1991; 5(6): 262-266.

Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla)
Chamomile is another plant with a long history of use for stress and anxiety around the world. It has been documented with anti-anxiety, anti-stress and sedative effects in the research cited below. In one human randomized double-blind clinical study it was shown to be effective in treating mild to moderate anxiety.
Amsterdam, J., et al. "Chamomile (Matricaria recutita) may provide antidepressant activity in anxious, depressed humans: an exploratory study." Altern Ther Health Med. 2012 Sep-Oct;18(5):44-9.
Can, O., et al. "Psychopharmacological profile of Chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) essential oil in mice." Phytomedicine. 2012 Feb 15;19(3-4):306-10.
Sarris, J., et al. "Herbal medicine for depression, anxiety and insomnia: a review of psychopharmacology and clinical evidence." Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2011 Dec;21(12):841-60.
Setzer, W. "Essential oils and anxiolytic aromatherapy. Nat Prod Commun. 2009 Sep;4(9):1305-16
Amsterdam, j., et al "A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral Matricaria recutita (chamomile) extract therapy for generalized anxiety disorder." J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2009 Aug;29(4):378-82
Awad, R., et al. "Effects of traditionally used anxiolytic botanicals on enzymes of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system." Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007 Sep;85(9):933-42.
Reis, L. S., et al. "Matricaria chamomilla CH12 decreases handling stress in Nelore calves." J. Vet. Sci. 2006 Jun; 7(2): 189-92.
McKay, D. L., et al. "A review of the bioactivity and potential health benefits of chamomile tea (Matricaria recutita L.)." Phytother. Res. 2006 Jul; 20(7): 519-30.
Wheatley, D. “Medicinal plants for insomnia: a review of their pharmacology, efficacy and tolerability.” J. Psychopharmacol. 2005 Jul; 19(4): 414-21.
Shinomiya, K., et al. “Hypnotic activities of chamomile and passiflora extracts in sleep-disturbed rats.” Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2005; 28(5): 808-10.
Gomaa, A., et al. “Matricaria chamomilla extract inhibits both development of morphine dependence and expression of abstinence syndrome in rats.” J. Pharmacol. Sci. 2003 May; 92(1): 50-5.
Larzelere, M., Wiseman, P. “Anxiety, depression, and insomnia.” Prim. Care. 2002; 29(2): 339-60.
Avallone, R, et. al. “Pharmacological profile of apigenin, a flavonoid isolated from Matricaria chamomilla.” Biochem. Pharmacol. 2000; 59(11): 1387-94.
Paladini, C, et al. “Flavonoids and the central nervous system: from forgotten factors to potent anxiolytic compounds.” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1999; 51(5): 519-26.
Cauffield, J. S, et al. “Dietary supplements used in the treatment of depression, anxiety, and sleep disorders.” Lippincotts Prim. Care. Pract. 1999; 3(3): 290-304.
Viola, H., et al. “Apigenin, a component of Matricaria recutita flowers, is a central benzodiazepine receptors-ligand with anxiolytic effects.” Planta Med. 1995; 61(3): 213-6.

Muira puama (Ptychopetalum olacoides)
Several recent studies confirm muira puama's traditional uses as a nerve or brain tonic by documenting its anti-depressant, anti-stress, anti-anxiety and memory enhancement actions.
Piato, A., et al. "Anti-stress effects of the "tonic" Ptychopetalum olacoides (Marapuama) in mice." Phytomedicine. 2010 Mar;17(3-4):248-53.
Piato, A., et al. "Antidepressant profile of Ptychopetalum olacoides Bentham (Marapuama) in mice." Phytother Res. 2009 Apr;23(4):519-24.
Piato, A., et al. "Effects of Marapuama in the chronic mild stress model: further indication of antidepressant properties." J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Jul 23;118(2):300-4.
da Silva, A. L., et al. “Anxiogenic properties of Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth. (Marapuama).” Phytother. Res. 2002; 16(3): 223-6.
Siqueira, I. R., et al. “Psychopharamcological properties of Ptychopetalum olachoides Bentham (Olacaceae).” Pharmaceutical Biol. 1998; 36(5): 327–34.
Figueiro, M., et al. "The Amazonian herbal Marapuama attenuates cognitive impairment and neuroglial degeneration in a mouse Alzheimer model." Phytomedicine. 2011 Feb 15;18(4):327-33.
Figueiro, M., et al. "Acetylcholinesterase inhibition in cognition-relevant brain areas of mice treated with a nootropic Amazonian herbal (Marapuama)." Phytomedicine. 2010 Oct;17(12):956-62.
Tang, W., et al. "Novel NGF-potentiating diterpenoids from a Brazilian medicinal plant, Ptychopetalum olacoides." Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009 Feb 1;19(3):882-6.
da Silva, A., et al. "MK801- and scopolamine-induced amnesias are reversed by an Amazonian herbal locally used as a "brain tonic"." Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2009 Jan;202(1-3):165-72.
Tang, W., et al. "Clerodane diterpenoids with NGF-potentiating activity from Ptychopetalum olacoides." J Nat Prod. 2008 Oct;71(10):1760-3.
da Silva, A., et al. "Serotonin receptors contribute to the promnesic effects of P. olacoides (Marapuama)." Physiol Behav. 2008 Sep 3;95(1-2):88-92.
Siqueira, I., et al. "Antioxidant activities of Ptychopetalum olacoides ("muirapuama") in mice brain." Phytomedicine. 2007 Nov;14(11):763-9.
da Silva, A. L., et al. "Promnesic effects of Ptychopetalum olacoides in aversive and non-aversive learning paradigms." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Feb; 109(3): 449-457.
da Silva, A. L., et al. “Memory retrieval improvement by Ptychopetalum olacoides in young and aging mice.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Dec; 95(2-3): 199-203.
Siqueira, I. R., et al. “Neuroprotective effects of Ptychopetalum olacoides Bentham (Olacaceae) on oxygen and glucose deprivation induced damage in rat hippocampal slices.” Life Sci. 2004 Aug; 75(15): 1897-906.
Siqueira, I. R., et al. “Ptychopetalum olacoides, a traditional Amazonian "nerve tonic," possesses anticholinesterase activity.” Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 2003 Jun; 75(3): 645-50.
Siqueira, I. R., et al. “Psychopharamcological properties of Ptychopetalum olachoides Bentham (Olacaceae).” Pharmaceutical Biol. 1998; 36(5): 327–34.
Forgacs, P., et al. “Phytochemical and biological activity studies on 18 plants from French Guyana.” Plant Med. Phytother. 1983; 17(1): 22–32.
Dias Da Silva, Rodolpho. “Medicinal plants of Brazil. Botanical and pharmacognostic studies. Muira puama.” Rev. Bras. Med. Pharm. 1925; 1(1): 37–41.

*The statements contained herein have not been evaluated
by the Food and Drug Administration. The information contained herein is intended and provided for education, research, entertainment and information purposes only. This information is not intended to be used to diagnose, prescribe or replace proper medical care. The plants and/or formulas described herein are not intended to treat, cure, diagnose, mitigate or prevent any disease and no medical claims are made.
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