Boldo Powder - Peumus boldus Boldo Powder

Peumus boldus

This product is no longer sold by Raintree Nutrition, Inc. See the main product page for more information why. Try doing a google search for products available from other suppliers or see the rainforest products page to find other companies selling rainforest herbal supplements or rainforest plants if you want to make this rainforest formula yourself.

Centuries ago, boldo was a little-known plant growing in farmers' pastures in Chile. Today, huge fields of boldo are cultivated around the world to supply the market demand for a specific herbal remedy or herbal drug for gallstones and gallbladder inflammation and for many types of liver, stomach, and digestive conditions.* For more information boldo (Peumus boldus), please refer to the Database File for Boldo in the Tropical Plant Database. To see pictures of boldo, click here.

Traditional Uses:* for gallstones and as a gallbladder stimulant (to stimulate bile); to tone, balance, and strengthen liver function (increases liver bile and detoxifies the liver); for upper digestive tract disorders (ulcers, sluggish digestion, lack of bile, dyspepsia); for bowel disorders (colitis, leaky gut, constipation, spastic colon, irritable bowel syndrome [IBS]); for intestinal worms and liver flukes

Suggested Use: This plant is best prepared as an infusion (tea): Use one teaspoon of powder for each cup of water. Pour boiling water over herb in cup and allow to steep 10 minutes. Strain tea (or allow settled powder to remain in the bottom of cup) and drink warm. It is traditionally taken in 1/2 cup amounts twice daily. For more complete instructions on preparing herbal infusions, see the Methods for Preparing Herbal Remedies Page.

  • Boldo has demonstrated abortive properties and caused fetal birth defects in animal studies and therefore should not be used during pregnancy or while breast-feeding.
  • Chemicals in boldo may thin the blood. Those taking blood-thinning medications (such as Warfarin®) should use with caution or under the supervision of a health practitioner to monitor these possible effects.

Drug Interactions: Boldo may enhance the effects of blood-thinning medications such as Warfarin®. One in vivo study suggests that boldo and/or boldine can decrease metabolic activation and/or metabolism of toxins, drugs, and chemicals in the liver. As such, boldo may decrease the effect or reduce the half-life of certain drugs that are metabolized in the liver.

Third-Party Published Research*

All available third-party research on boldo can be found at PubMed. A partial listing of the published research on boldo is shown below:

Antioxidant & Cellular Protective Actions:
Lau, Y., et al. "Boldine protects endothelial function in hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress through an antioxidant mechanism." Biochem Pharmacol. 2012 Nov 22. doi:pii: S0006-2952(12)00751-4.
Sobarzo-Sánchez, E., et al. "Applied biological and physicochemical activity of isoquinoline alkaloids: oxoisoaporphine and boldine." Molecules. 2012 Sep 12;17(9):10958-70.
Falé P., et al. "Acetylcholinesterase inhibition, antioxidant activity and toxicity of Peumus boldus water extracts on HeLa and Caco-2 cell lines." Food Chem Toxicol. 2012 Aug;50(8):2656-62.
Lau, Y., et al. "The aporphine alkaloid boldine improves endothelial function in spontaneously hypertensive rats." Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2012 Jan 1;237(1):93-8.
Fernández, J. et al. "Effect of boldo (Peumus boldus Molina) infusion on lipoperoxidation induced by cisplatin in mice liver." Phytother Res. 2009; 23(7):1024-7.
Yu, B., et al."The aporphine alkaloid boldine induces adiponectin expression and regulation in 3T3-L1 cells." J. Med. Food. 2009 Oct; 12(5): 1074-83.
Konrath, E., et al. "Antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties of boldine on hippocampal slices exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation in vitro." Neurotoxicology. 2008 Nov; 29(6): 1136-40.
Hidalgo, M., et al. "Photostability and photoprotection factor of boldine and glaucine." J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 2005 Jul; 80(1): 65-9.
O'brien, P., et al. “Boldine and its antioxidant or health-promoting properties.” Chem. Biol. Interact. 2006 Jan; 159(1): 1-17.
Milian, L., et al. “Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation inhibited by aporphine and phenanthrene alkaloids semi-synthesized from natural boldine.” Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2004; 52(6): 696-9.
Santanam, N., et al. “A novel alkaloid antioxidant, Boldine and synthetic antioxidant, reduced form of RU486, inhibit the oxidation of LDL in-vitro and atherosclerosis in vivo in LDLR(-/-) mice.” Atherosclerosis. 2004 Apr; 173(2):203-10.
Schmeda-Hirschmann, G., “Free-radical scavengers and antioxidants from Peumus boldus Mol. ("Boldo").
Free Radic. Res. 2003 Apr; 37(4): 447-52.
Youn, Y. C., et al. “Protective effect of boldine on dopamine-induced membrane permeability transition in brain mitochondria and viability loss in PC12 cells.” Biochem. Pharmacol. 2002 Feb; 63(3): 495-505.
Jimenez, I., et al. “Protective effects of boldine against free radical-induced erythrocyte lysis.” Phytother. Res. 2000; 14(5): 339–43.
Reiniger, I. W., et al. “Boldine action against the stannous chloride effect.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1999 Dec; 68(1-3): 345-8.
Ubeda, A., et al. “Iron-reducing and free-radical-scavenging properties of apomorphine and some related benzylisoquinolines.” Free Radic. Biol. Med. 1993 Aug; 15(2): 159-67.
Speisky, H., et al. “Antioxidant properties of the alkaloid boldine in systems undergoing lipid peroxidation and enzyme inactivation.” Biochem. Pharmacol. 1991 Jun; 41(11): 1575-81.

Liver Protective & Detoxifying Actions:
Kubinova, R., et al. “Chemoprotective activity of boldine: modulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes.” Pharmazie. 2001; 56(3): 242–43.
Jimenez, I., et al. “Biological disposition of boldine: in vitro and in vivo studies.” Phytother. Res. 2000 Jun; 14(4): 254-60.
Jang, Y. Y., et al. “Protective effect of boldine on oxidative mitochondrial damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.” Pharmacol. Res. 2000; 42(4): 361–71.
Bannach, R., et al. “Cytoprotective and antioxidant effects of boldine on tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced damage to isolated hepatocytes.” Cell Biol. Toxicol. 1996 Apr; 12(2): 89-100.
Kringstein, P., et al. “Boldine prevents human liver microsomal lipid peroxidation and inactivation of cytochrome P4502E1.” Free Radic. Biol. Med. 1995; 18(3): 559–63.
Cederbaum, A. I., et al. “Inhibition of rat liver microsomal lipid peroxidation by boldine.” Biochem, Pharmacol. 1992 Nov; 44(9): 1765-72.
Lanhers, M. C., et al. “Hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of a traditional medicinal plant of Chile, Peumus boldus.” Planta Med. 1991; 57(2): 110–15.

Anti-cholesterol, Hypoglycemic, & Anti-platelet Actions:
Chi, T., et al. "Antihyperglycemic effect of aporphines and their derivatives in normal and diabetic rats." Planta Med. 2006 Oct; 72(13):1175-80.
Eltze, M., et al. “Affinity profile at alpha(1)- and alpha(2) - adrenoceptor subtypes and in vitro cardiovascular actions of (+) - boldine.” Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2002; 443(1-3): 151-68.
Teng, C. M., et al. “Antiplatelet effects of some aporphine and phenanthrene alkaloids in rabbits and man.” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1997; 49(7): 706–11.
Almeida, E. R., et al. “Toxicological evaluation of the hydro-alcohol extract of the dry leaves of Peumus boldus and boldine in rats.” Phytother. Res. 2000; 14(2): 99–102.
Chen, K. S., et al. “Antiplatelet and vasorelaxing actions of some aporphinoids.” Planta Med. 1996; 62(2): 133–36.

Digestive Stimulant, Diuretic & Bile Stimulant Actions:
Gotteland, M., et al. “Protective effect of boldine in experimental colitis.” Planta Med. 1997; 63(4): 311–15.
Gotteland, M., et al. “Effect of a dry boldo extract on oro-cecal intestinal transit in healthy volunteers.” Rev. Med. Chil. 1995; 123(8): 955–60.
Lévy-Appert-Collin, M. C., et al. “Galenic preparations from Peumus boldus leaves (Monimiacea).” J. Pharm. Belg. 1977; 32: 13.
Hughes, D. W., et al. “Alkaloids of Peumus boldus. Isolation of laurotetanine and laurolitsine.” J. Pharm. Sci. 1968.

Gallbladder Bile Stimulant Actions:
Speisky, H., et al. “Boldo and boldine: an emerging case of natural drug development.” Pharmacol. Res. 1994 Jan-Feb; 29(1): 1-12.
Tavares, D. C., et al. “Evaluation of the genotoxic potential of the alkaloid boldine in mammalian cell systems in vitro and in vivo.” Mutat. Res. 1994; 321(3): 139–45.
Krug, H., et al. “New flavonol glycosides from the leaves of Peumus boldus Molina.” Pharmazie, 1965; Nov.

Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, Muscle-Relaxant & Anti-Spasmodic Actions:
Zhao, Q., et al. "Antinociceptive and free radical scavenging activities of alkaloids isolated from Lindera angustifolia Chen." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Jul; 106(3):408-13.
Ivorra, M., et al. "8-NH2-boldine, an antagonist of alpha1A and alpha1B adrenoceptors without affinity for the alpha1D subtype: structural requirements for aporphines at alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes." Planta Med. 2005 Oct; 71(10): 897-903.
Estelles, R., et al. “Effect of boldine, secoboldine, and boldine methine on angiotensin II-induced neurtrophil recruitment in vivo.” J. Leukoc. Biol. 2005 Sep; 78(3): 696-704.
Kang, J. J., et al. “Studies on neuromuscular blockade by boldine in the mouse phrenic nerve diaphragm.” Planta Med. 1999; 65(2): 178–79.
Kang, J. J., et al. “Effects of boldine on mouse diaphragm and sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles isolated from skeletal muscle.” Planta Med. 1998; 64(1): 18–21.
Backhouse, N., et al. “Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of boldine.” Agents Actions 1994; 42(3–4): 114–17.
Ivorra, M. D., et al. “Different mechanism of relaxation induced by aporphine alkaloids in rat uterus.” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1993; 45(5): 439–43.
Lanhers, M. C., et al. “Hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of a traditional medicinal plant of Chile, Peumus boldus.” Planta Med. 1991; 57(2): 110–15.

Anthelmintic (worm expelling) & Antiparasitic Actions:
Mollataghi, A., et al. "Anti-acetylcholinesterase, anti-a-glucosidase, anti-leishmanial and anti-fungal activities of chemical constituents of Beilschmiedia species." Fitoterapia. 2012 Mar;83(2):298-302.
Monzote, L., et al. "Comparative chemical, cytotoxicity and antileishmanial properties of essential oils from Chenopodium ambrosioides." Nat Prod Commun. 2011 Feb;6(2):281-6.
van Krimpen, M., et al. "Anthelmintic effects of phytogenic feed additives in Ascaris suum inoculated pigs." Vet Parasitol. 2010 Mar 25;168(3-4):269-77.
van Krimpen, M., et al. "Anthelmintic effects of phytogenic feed additives in Ascaris suum inoculated pigs." Vet Parasitol. 2010 Mar 25;168(3-4):269-77.
Torres, M., et al. "Larvicidal and nematicidal activities of the leaf essential oil of Croton regelianus." Chem Biodivers. 2008 Dec;5(12):2724-8
Morello, A., et al. “Trypanocidal effect of boldine and related alkaloids upon several strains of Trypanosoma cruzi.” Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Pharmacol. Toxicol. Endocrinol. 1994; 107(3): 367-71.
Johnson, M. A., et al. “Biosynthesis of ascaridole: iodide peroxidase-catalyzed synthesis of a monoterpene endoperoxide in soluble extracts of Chenopodium ambrosioides fruit.” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1984 Nov; 235(1): 254-66

Anticancerous & Antileukemic Actions:
Russon, A., et al. "Boldo prevents UV light and nitric oxide-mediated plasmid DNA damage and reduces the expression of Hsp70 protein in melanoma cancer cells." J Pharm Pharmacol. 2011 Sep;63(9):1219-29.
Thomet, F., et al. "Cytotoxic thiocarbamate derivatives of boldine." Nat Prod Commun. 2010 Oct;5(10):1587-90.
Gerhardt, D., et al. "Boldine: a potential new antiproliferative drug against glioma cell lines." Invest. New Drugs. 2009 Dec;27(6):517-25.
Stevigny, C., et al. “Cytotoxic and antitumor potentialities of aporphinoid alkaloids.” Curr. Med. Chem. Anti-Cancer Agents. 2005 Mar; 5(2): 173-82.
Gonzalez-Cabello, R., et al. “Effects of boldine on cellular immune functions in vitro.” J. Investig. Allergol. Clin. Immunol. 1994 May-Jun; 4(3): 139-45.

Anti-fungal & Anti-bacterial Actions:
Passone, M., et al. "Evaluation of the control ability of five essential oils against Aspergillus section Nigri growth and ochratoxin A accumulation in peanut meal extract agar conditioned at different water activities levels." Int J Food Microbiol. 2012 Oct 15;159(3):198-206.
Mollataghi, A., et al. "Anti-acetylcholinesterase, anti-a-glucosidase, anti-leishmanial and anti-fungal activities of chemical constituents of Beilschmiedia species." Fitoterapia. 2012 Mar;83(2):298-302.
Garcia, M., et al. "New alkaloid antibiotics that target the DNA topoisomerase I of Streptococcus pneumoniae." J Biol Chem. 2011 Feb 25;286(8):6402-13.
Bluma, R., et al. "Control of Aspergillus section Flavi growth and aflatoxin accumulation by plant essential oils." J. Appl. Microbiol. 2008 Jul; 105(1): 203-14.

Herbicidal Actions:
Verdegeur, M., et al. "Herbicidal activity of Peumus boldus and Drimys winterii essential oils from Chile." Molecules. 2011 Jan 10;16(1):403-11.

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by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is
not intended to treat, cure, mitigate or prevent any disease.
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Last updated 12-27-2012