Amazon A-V: plants traditionally used for viruses Amazon
120 capsules (650 mg each)

This product is no longer sold by Raintree Nutrition, Inc. See the main product page for more information why. Try doing a google search or see the rainforest products page to find other companies selling rainforest herbal supplements or rainforest plants if you want to make this rainforest formula yourself.

A combination of 9 plants which have been independently documented around the world with anti-viral actions.* For more information on the individual ingredients in Amazon A-V, follow the links provided below to the plant database files in the Tropical Plant Database. More information can also be found in the new Antimicrobial Guide.

Ingredients: A proprietary blend of bitter melon, clavillia, mullaca, jergon sacha, carqueja, amargo, chanca piedra, mutamba, and anamu. To prepare this natural remedy yourself: Use one equal part of each plant listed. To make a small amount... "1 part" could be one tablespoon (you'd have 9 tablespoons of the blended herbal formula). For larger amounts, use "1 part" as one ounce or one cup or one pound. Combine all the herbs together well. The herbal mixture can then be stuffed into capsules or brewed into tea, stirred into juice or other liquid, or taken however you'd like.

Suggested Use: Take 3 capsules three times daily.

Contraindications: Not to be used during pregnancy or while breast-feeding.

Drug Interactions: None reported.

Other Practitioner Observations: Several ingredients in this formula have demonstrated significant in vitro antimicrobial properties. Supplementing the diet with probiotics and digestive enzymes is advisable if this product is used for longer than 15 days.

Third-Party Published Research*

This rainforest formula has not been the subject of any clinical research. A partial listing of the published research on each herbal ingredient in the formula is shown below. Please refer to the plant database files by clicking on the plant names below to see all available documentation and research.

Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia)
Bitter melon (and several of its plant chemicals) have been documented with in vitro antiviral activity against numerous viruses, including Epstein-Barr, herpes, and HIV viruses. In an in vivo study, a leaf extract increased resistance to viral infections and had an immunostimulant effect in humans and animals.*
Zhu, F., et al. "Alpha-momorcharin, a RIP produced by bitter melon, enhances defense response in tobacco plants against diverse plant viruses and shows antifungal activity in vitro." Planta. 2012 Sep 16.
Feng, E., et al. "Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is a cornucopia of health: a review of its credited antidiabetic, anti-HIV, and antitumor properties." Curr Mol Med. 2011 Jul;11(5):417-36. Review.
Mahomoodally, M., et al. "Screening for alternative antibiotics: an investigation into the antimicrobial activities of medicinal food plants of Mauritius." J Food Sci. 2010 Apr;75(3):M173-7.
Puri, M., et al. "Ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs) from Momordica charantia for anti viral therapy." Curr. Mol. Med. 2009 Dec; 9(9): 1080-94.
Braca, A., et al. "Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Momordica charantia seed essential oil." Fitoterapia. 2008; 79(2): 123-5.
Fan, J., et al. "Inhibition on Hepatitis B virus in vitro of recombinant MAP30 from bitter melon." Mol. Biol. Rep. 2009; 36(2): 381-8.
Jiratchariyakul, W., et al. "HIV inhibitor from Thai bitter gourd." Planta Med. 2001 Jun; 67(4): 350-3.
Zheng, Y. T., et al. “Alpha-momorcharin inhibits HIV-1 replication in acutely but not chronically infected T-lymphocytes.” Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1999; 20(3): 239-43.
Bourinbaiar, A. S., et al. “The activity of plant-derived antiretroviral proteins MAP30 and GAP31 against Herpes simplex virus in vitro.” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1996; 219(3): 923–29.
Lee-Huang, S., et al. “Inhibition of the integrase of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 by anti-HIV plant proteins MAP30 and GAP31.” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 1995; 92(19): 8818–22.
Dong, T. X., et al. “Ribosome inactivating protein-like activity in seeds of diverse Cucurbitaceae plants.” Indian J. Exp. Biol. 1993; 25(3): 415–19.
Zhang, Q. C. “Preliminary report on the use of Momordica charantia extract by HIV patients.” J. Naturopath. Med. 1992; 3: 65–9.
Hussain, H. S. N., et al. “Plants in Kano ethomedicine: Screening for antimicrobial activity and alkaloids.” Int. J. Pharmacog. 1991; 29(1): 51–6.
Huang, T. M., et al. “Studies on antiviral activity of the extract of Momordica charantia and its active principle.” Virologica. 1990; 5(4): 367–73.
Lee-Huang, S. “MAP 30: A new inhibitor of HIV-1 infection and replication.” FEBS Lett. 1990; 272(1–2): 12–18.
Takemoto, D. J. “Purification and characterization of a cytostatic factor with anti-viral activity from the bitter melon.” Prep. Biochem. 1983; 13(4): 371–93.
Takemoto, D. J., et al. “Purification and characterization of a cytostatic factor from the bitter melon Momordica charantia.Prep. Biochem. 1982; 12(4): 355-75.

Clavillia (Mirabilis jalapa)
Clavillia contains a group of amino acid-based proteins, called mirabilis antiviral proteins (MAPs). These chemicals have demonstrated antiviral actions in numerous tests and have been patented as antiviral agents.*
Michalet, S., "N-caffeoylphenalkylamide derivatives as bacterial efflux pump inhibitors." Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2007 Mar; 17(6): 1755-8.
Bolognesi, A. et al. “Ribosome-inactivating and adenine polynucleotide glycosylase activities in Mirabilis jalapa L. tissues.” J. Biol. Chem. 2002; 277(16) 13709–16.
Yang, S. W., et al. “Three new phenolic compounds from a manipulated plant cell culture, Mirabilis jalapa.” J. Nat. Prod. 2001; 64(3): 313–17.
Vivanco, J. M., et al. “Characterization of two novel type 1 ribosome-inactivating proteins from the storage roots of the Andean crop Mirabilis expansa.” Plant Physiol. 1999; 119(4): 1447–56.
Dimayuga, R. E., et al. ”Antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants from Baja California Sur (Mexico).” Pharmaceutical Biol. 1998; 36(1): 33–43.
De Bolle, M. F., et al. “Antimicrobial peptides from Mirabilis jalapa and Amarantus caudatus: expression, processing, localization and biological activity in transgenic tobacco.” Plant Mol. Biol. 1996; 31(5): 993–1008.
Kataoka, J., et al. “Adenine depurination and inactivation of plant ribosomes by an antiviral protein of Mirabilis jalapa (MAP).” Plant Mol. Biol. 1992; 20(6): 111–19.
Wong, R. N., et al. “Characterization of Mirabilis antiviral protein—a ribosome inactivating protein from Mirabilis jalapa L.” Biochem. Int. 1992; 28(4): 585–93.
Cammue, B. P., et al. “Isolation and characterization of a novel class of plant antimicrobial peptides from Mirabilis jalapa L. seeds.” J. Biol. Chem. 1992; 267(4): 2228–33.
Caceres, A., et al. “Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. Screening for antimycotic activity of 44 plant extracts.” J. Ethnophamacol. 1991; 31(3): 263–76.
Kusamba, C., et al. “Antibacterial activity of Mirabilis jalapa seed powder.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1991; 35(2): 197–99.
Caceres, A., et al. “Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1987; 20(3): 223–37.

Mullaca (Physalis angulata)
Mullaca has been demonstrated in laboratory tests to possess reverse transcriptase inhibitory effects. Other research reports antiviral actions against polio virus I, herpes simplex virus I, the measles virus, and HIV-1.*
Osho, A., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Physalis angulata. L." Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2010;7(4):303-6.
Silva, M. T., et al. “Studies on antimicrobial activity, in vitro, of Physalis angulata L. (Solanaceae) fraction and physalin B bringing out the importance of assay determination.” Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 2005 Nov; 100(7): 779-82.
Hwang, J. K., et al. “Anticariogenic activity of some tropical medicinal plants against Streptococcus mutans.” Fitoterapia. 2004 Sep; 75(6): 596-8.
Pietro, R. C., et al. “In vitro antimycobacterial activities of Physalis angulata L.” Phytomedicine 2000; 7(4): 335–38.
Januario, A. H., et al. “Antimycobacterial physalins from Physalis angulata L. (Solanaceae).” Phytother. Res. 2002; 16(5): 445-48.
Hussain, H., et al. “Plants in Kano ethnomedicine; screening for antimicrobial activity and alkaloids.” Int. J. Pharmacol. 1991; 29(1): 51–56.
Otake, T., et al. “Screening of Indonesian plant extracts for anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Type 1 (HIV-1) Activity.” Phytother. Res. 1995; 9(1): 6–10.
Kurokawa, M., et al. “Antiviral traditional medicines against Herpes simplex virus (HSV-1), polio virus, and measles virus in vitro and their therapeutic efficacies for HSV-1 infection in mice." Antiviral Res. 1993; 22(2/3): 175–88.
Kusumoto, I. T., et al. “Screening of some Indonesian medicinal plants for inhibitory effects on HIV-1 protease.” Shoyakugaku Zasshi 1992; 46(2): 190-93.
Ogunlana, E. O., et al. “Investigations into the antibacterial activities of local plants.” Planta Med. 1975; 27: 354.

Jergon Sacha (Dracontium loretense)
Jergon sacha is employed for viral conditions in Peru. Dr. Roberto Inchuastegui Gonzales, president of the Committee of AIDS and Transmissible Diseases at the Peruvian Institute of Social Security in Iquitos, Peru reports using it for HIV and other viruses.*
Napolitano, A., et al. "Qualitative on-line profiling of ceramides and cerebrosides by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometry: the case of Dracontium loretense." J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2011 Apr 28;55(1):23-30
Kloucek, P., “Antibacterial screening of some Peruvian medicinal plants used in Calleria District.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Jun; 99(2): 309-12.
Nunez, V., et al. "Neutralization of the edema-forming, defibrinating and coagulant effects of Bothrops asper venom by extracts of plants used by healers in Colombia." Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 2004; 37(7): 969-77.
Otero, R., et al. “Snakebites and ethnobotany in the northwest region of Colombia: Part II: neutralization of lethal and enzymatic effects of Bothrops atrox venom.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Aug; 71(3): 505-11.

Carqueja (Baccharis genistelloides)
Carqueja showed in vitro antiviral actions against Herpes simplex I and Vesicular stomatitis viruses at low dosages in laboratory research. Researchers in Texas published that a water extract of carqueja provided an in vitro inhibition of HIV virus replication in T-cells. In subsequent research, they've attributed this anti-HIV effect to a single chemical they found in the water extract of carqueja called 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and reported that this plant chemical is a potent inhibitor of HIV at dosages as low as only 1 mcg/ml. See page B-15 for more information on carqueja.*
Samy, R., et al. "Therapeutic Potential of Plants as Anti-microbials for Drug Discovery." Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2010 September; 7(3): 283–294
Morales, G., et al. "Antimicrobial activity of three Baccharis species used in the traditional medicine of Northern Chile." Molecules. 2008; 13(4): 790-4.
Betoni, J., et al. "Synergism between plant extract and antimicrobial drugs used on Staphylococcus aureus diseases." Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 2006 Jun; 101(4): 387-90.
Sanchez Palomino, S., et al. “Screening of South American plants against human immunodeficiency virus: preliminary fractionation of aqueous extract from Baccharis trinervis.Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2002; 25(9):1147-50.
Abad, M. J., et al. “Antiviral activity of Bolivian plant extracts.” Gen. Pharmacol. 1999; 32(4): 499–503.
Abad, M. J., et al. “Antiviral activity of some South American medicinal plants.” Phytother. Res. 1999 Mar; 13(2): 142-6.
Robinson, W. E., et al. “Inhibitors of HIV-1 replication that inhibit HIV Integrase.” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 1996; 93(13): 6326–31.
Abdel-Malek, S., et al. “Drug leads from the Kallawaya herbalists of Bolivia. 1. Background, rationale, protocol and anti-HIV activity.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1996; 50(3): 157–66.
Morre, D. J., et al. "Effect of the quassinoids glaucarubolone and simalikalactone D on growth of cells permanently infected with feline and human immunodeficiency viruses and on viral infections." Life Sci. 1998; 62(3): 213-9.

Amargo (Quassia amara)
Amargo was reported to have antiviral activity when scientists at Texas Christian University demonstrated in 1996 that a water extract was active in vitro against cells infected with HIV.*
Xu, Z., et al. “Anti-HIV agents 45(1) and antitumor agents 205. (2) Two new sesquiterpenes, leitneridanins A and B, andthe cytotoxic and anti-HIV principles from Leitneria floridana.” J. Nat. Prod. 2000; 63(12): 1712–15.
Abdel-Malek, S., et al. “Drug leads from the Kallawaya herbalists of Bolivia. 1. Background, rationale, protocol and anti-HIV activity.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1996; 50: 157–66.
Ajaiyeoba, E.O., et al. “Antibacterial and antifungal activities of Quassia undulata and Quassia amara extracts in vitro.” Afr. J. Med. Med. Sci. 2003 Dec; 32(4): 353-6.
Apers, S., et al. “Antiviral activity of simalikalactone D, a quassinoid from Quassia africana.” Planta Med. 2002; 25(9): 1151–55.
Morre, D. J., et al. “Effect of the quassinoids glaucarubolone and simalikalactone D on growth of cells permanently infected with feline and human immunodeficiency viruses and on viral infections.” Life Sci. 1998; 62(3): 213-9.

Chanca piedra (Phyllanthus niruri, amarus)
Chanca piedra has been the subject of much study with Hepatitis B. A review of 22 randomized trials by The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Research Group suggests it has, “a positive effect on clearance of serum HBsAg (Hepatitis B surface antigen) comparable to interferon and was better than nonspecific treatment or other herbal medicines for HBV and liver enzyme normalization." Several other studies indicated chanca piedra has antiviral actions against HIV-1. For more information on chanca piedra, see page B-16.*
Faral-Tello, P., et al. "Cytotoxic, virucidal, and antiviral activity of South American plant and algae extracts." Scientific World Journal. 2012;2012:174837
Wei, W., et al. "Lignans with anti-hepatitis B virus activities from Phyllanthus niruri L." Phytother Res. 2012 Jul;26(7):964-8.
Ravikumar, Y., et al. "Inhibition of hepatitis C virus replication by herbal extract: Phyllanthus amarus as potent natural source." Virus Res. 2011 Jun;158(1-2):89-97
Cheng, H., et al. "Excoecarianin, isolated from Phyllanthus urinaria Linnea, inhibits Herpes simplex virus type 2 infection through inactivation of viral particles." Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2009 Oct 6.
Dirjomuljono, M., et al. "Symptomatic treatment of acute tonsillo-pharyngitis patients with a combination of Nigella sativa and Phyllanthus niruri extract." Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 2008; 46(6): 295-306.
Yang, C., et al. "The in vitro activity of geraniin and 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose isolated from Phyllanthus urinaria against Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 infection." J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Apr; 110(3): 555-8.
Bagalkotkar, G., et al. "Phytochemicals from Phyllanthus niruri Linn. and their pharmacological properties: a review." J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2006 Dec; 58(12): 1559-70.
Naik, A., et al. "Effects of alkaloidal extract of Phyllanthus niruri on HIV replication." Indian J. Med. Sci. 2003 Sep; 57(9): 387-93.
Huang, R. L., et al. “Screening of 25 compounds isolated from Phyllanthus species for anti-human hepatitis B virus in vitro.” Phytother. Res. 2003; 17(5): 449-53.
Liu, J., et al. “Genus Phyllanthus for chronic Hepatitis B virus infection: A systematic review.” Viral Hepat. 2001; 8(5): 358–66.
Xin-Hua, W., et al. “A comparative study of Phyllanthus amarus compound and interferon in the treatment of chronic viral Hepatitis B.” Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 2001; 32(1): 140–42.
Wang, M. X., et al. “Herbs of the genus Phyllanthus in the treatment of chronic Hepatitis B: Observation with three preparations from different geographic sites.” J. Lab. Clin. Med. 1995; 126(4): 350–52.
Wang, M. X., et al. “Observations of the efficacy of Phyllanthus spp. in treating patients with chronic Hepatitis B.” 1994; 19(12): 750–52.
Thyagarajan, S. P., et al. “Effect of Phyllanthus amarus on chronic carriers of Hepatitis B virus.” Lancet 1988; 2(8614): 764–66.
Venkateswaran, P. S., et al. “Effects of an extract from Phyllanthus niruri on Hepatitis B and wood chuck hepatitis viruses: in vitro and in vivo studies.” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 1987; 84(1): 274–78.
Bhumyamalaki, et al. “Phyllanthus niruri and jaundice in children.” J. Natl. Integ. Med. Ass. 1983; 25(8): 269–72.
Thyagarajan, S. P., et al. “In vitro inactivation of HBsAG by Eclipta alba (Hassk.) and Phyllanthus niruri (Linn.).” Indian J. Med. Res. 1982; 76s: 124–30.
Notka, F., et al. “Concerted inhibitory activities of Phyllanthus amarus on HIV replication in vitro and ex vivo.” Antiviral Res. 2004 Nov; 64(2): 93-102.
Notka, F., et al. “Inhibition of wild-type human immunodeficiency virus and reverse transcriptase inhibitor-resistant variants by Phyllanthus amarus.” Antiviral Res. 2003 Apr; 58(2): 175-186.
Qian-Cutrone, J. “Niruriside, a new HIV REV/RRE binding inhibitor from Phyllanthus niruri.J. Nat. Prod. 1996; 59(2): 196–99.
Ogata, T., et al. “HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor from Phyllanthus niruri.AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 1992; 8(11): 1937–44.

Mutamba (Guazuma ulmifolia)
Mutamba was reported with antiviral activity against Herpes simplex type 1 in a 1995 study and again in 2011.*
Jacobo-Salcedo Mdel, R., et al. "Antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Mexican medicinal plants." Nat Prod Commun. 2011 Dec;6(12):1925-8.
Kaneria, M., et al. "Determination of antibacterial and antioxidant potential of some medicinal plants from saurashtra region, India." Indian J Pharm Sci. 2009 Jul;71(4):406-12.
Felipe, A. M., et al. "Antiviral effect of Guazuma ulmifolia and Stryphnodendron adstringens on Poliovirus and Bovine Herpesvirus." Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2006; 29(6): 1092-5.
Caceres, A., et al. “Anti-gonorrhoeal activity of plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1995; 48(2): 85–88.
Hattori, M., et al. “Inhibitory effects of various Ayurvedic and Panamania medicinal plants on the infection of Herpes simplex virus-1 in vitro and in vivo.” Phytother. Res. 1995; 9(4): 270–76.
Heinrich, M., et al. “Parasitological and microbiological evaluation of Mixe Indian medicinal plants.” (Mexico) J. Ethnopharmacol. 1992; 36(1): 81–85.
Caceres, A., et al. “Screening of antimicrobial activity of plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatomucosal diseases.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1987; 20(3): 223–37.

Anamu (Petiveria alliacea)
Anamu has been reported with broad-spectrum antimicrobial actions against viruses, fungi, bacteria, and parasites.*
Kim, S., et al. “Antibacterial and antifungal activity of sulfur-containing compounds from Petiveria alliacea L.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Mar; 104(1-2): 188-92.
Kubec, R., et al. “The lachrymatory principle of Petiveria alliacea.” Phytochemistry. 2003 May; 63(1): 37-40.
Ruffa, M. J., et al. “Antiviral activity of Petiveria alliacea against the bovine diarrhea virus. Chemotherapy 2002; 48(3): 144-47.
Benevides, P. J., et al. “Antifungal polysulphides from Petiveria alliacea L.” Phytochemistry. 2001; 57(5): 743-7.
Caceres, A., et al. “Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections. I. Screening of activity to bacteria, fungi and American trypanosomes of 13 native plants.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1998 Oct; 62(3): 195-202.
Berger, I., et al. “Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections: II. Activity of extracts and fractions of five Guatemalan plants against Trypanosoma cruzi.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1998 Sep; 62(2): 107-15.
Hoyos, L., et al. “Evaluation of the genotoxic effects of a folk medicine, Petiveria alliaceae (Anamu).” Mutat. Res. 1992; 280(1): 29-34.
Caceres, A., et al. “Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. I. Screening for antimycotic activity of 44 plant extracts.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1991; 31(3): 263-76.
Misas, C.A.J., et al. “The biological assessment of Cuban plants. III.” Rev. Cub. Med. Trop. 1979; 31(1): 21–27.
Von Szczepanski, C., et al. “Isolation, structure elucidation and synthesis of an antimicrobial substance from Petiveria alliacea.” Arzneim-Forsch 1972; 22: 1975–.
Feng, P., et al. “Further pharmacological screening of some West Indian medicinal plants.” J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1964; 16: 115.

*The statements contained herein have not been evaluated
by the Food and Drug Administration. The information contained herein is intended and provided for education, research, entertainment and information purposes only. This information is not intended to be used to diagnose, prescribe or replace proper medical care. The plants and/or formulas described herein are not intended to treat, cure, diagnose, mitigate or prevent any disease and no medical claims are made.
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Last updated 12-30-2012